یکی از مشکلات معماری کنونی ایران، توجه اندک به هویت معماری ایرانی است که موجب عدم وجود تعریفی دقیق، از معیارهای هویتی معماری معاصر است. این، درحالی است که فقدان توجه کافی به ارزشهای معماری سنتی ایران، بحران التقاط در معماری معاصر را بهدنبال دارد. سوالات مطرح در این زمینه، این است که آیا میتوان با بررسی افکار و نظریات فیلسوفان ایرانی چون ملاصدرا، تعریفی جدید از معماری ارایه داد و آیا با استناد به آن، میتوان اصولی مشخص را برای معماری معاصر تدوین نمود؟ روش کلی تحقیق در این مقاله تفسیری-تاریخی و توصیفی است. دادههای تحقیق، عمدتاً از طریق مشاهده و مطالعات اسنادی بهدست آمده است. نتایج حاصله، نشان میدهد که با استفاده از تعاریف ملاصدرا از وجود و ماهیت، معماری دارای دو بعد وجودی و ماهیتی است. ماهیت آن، پاسخگوی نیازهای مادی است و وجود آن، حقیقتی است که در خود(اثر معماری) نگهداری میکند و آن را به حضور میآورد. با توجه به اصل اصالت وجودِ ملاصدرا، میتوان نتیجه گرفت که در معماری نیز اصالت با بعدِ وجودی است. لذا با استفاده از اصول فکری ملاصدرا و روشهایی که برای رسیدن به مبانی حکمت خود بهکار برده است، اصولی برای طراحی معماری میتوان تدوین کرد.
A Review on the principles and objectives of contemporary architecture in Iran from Mulla Sadra's point of view
Paying little attention to the identity of Iranian architecture is one of the problems of contemporary architecture of Iran which has caused the absence of a precise definition of Identifying criteria in contemporary architecture of Iran; so that diversity of selected views is one of the main features of this architecture. Perhaps it can be said that many Iranian architects design without codified principles and even without theoretical knowledge and precise understanding of mental concepts in different styles. However, the lack of attention to values of Iranian traditional architecture is followed by eclecticism crisis in contemporary architecture. The questions raised in this context is whether a new definition of architecture can be given by examining the thoughts and opinions of Iranian philosophers like Mulla Sadra gave a new definition of architecture and whether according to their theories outlined principles Can be codified for contemporary architecture? The general approach in this research which intends to paraphrase the ideas of Mulla Sadra in contemporary architecture is Interpretative - historical and descriptive. The research data are derived mainly through observation and documentary studies. The results indicate that by using Mulla Sadra's definitions of being (al-wujud) and essence (mahiyyat) we can have a new defined view at architecture. As Sadra considers all phenomena in two dimensions, architecture also has both being and essence aspects. The essence of architecture responds to material needs and its being is a truth which architecture maintains and brings it to presence. Indeed, the Physics of architecture is the essence of architecture (mahiyyat) and the valuable concepts underlying the architectural Physics are the being of architecture (al-wujud). Considering Mulla Sadra's primary of being (asalat al-wujud) we can conclude that there is also primary of being in architecture. Of course this does not mean that the architect who cares about the being of architecture pays no attention to the essence of architecture. It means that the architect who cares about the being of architecture tries to discover and understand the being of traditional architecture and to present it in a new body which is appropriate for today's architecture. Therefore by regarding the Principles of Mulla Sadra's thought and practice used to achieve the roots of his philosophy, principles can be formulated for architectural design. The principles are formed in order to achieve the lofty goal of traditional Iranian architecture and they attend guide and direct the audience attention toward the pure being (God). Using concepts as inspiration and metaphor and manifestation of the light can be useful to achieve this goal. These concepts are the essential to make the basis clear for contemporary architecture and shows that we can achieve our goals for contemporary architecture of Iran in the same way that Mulla Sadra was able to resurrect the underlying concepts of traditional philosophy. From the perspective of al- wujud ontology, the first target of architecture is to show the truth of being essences; to show the being within the essences without them there is no sense of architecture. If we consider the context of architecture as an activity consisting of a combination of emotion and symbolic meanings, according to Mulla Sadra's method, architecture must accommodate itself to life as a significant whole. In this case the main task for architects will be to shape living spaces and to create necessary content for human presence (al-hozur) and to provide features for human identification. So there is no doubt that one of the main goals for architecture is to create the perfect place and to promote the human presence (al-hozur). Architecture is the genuine sense of human presence (al-hozur), and it may be understood by the human presence (al-hozur). Creation of art is a kind of creation that its nature is extracted from god. According to Mulla Sadra's principles, man unites with his artwork and then the truth would emerge. Architecture is a part of the whole art that tends to reveal the being (al-wojud). From the perspective of being and essence (al-mahiyyat) architecture itself is consisted from two sides; one side is being and the other is essence. And the perception of its essence is possible because of its being: but the being of architecture obtains its existence from the creator and so architecture is always in compliance with its creator's rank of being (mrateb al-wojud). In this theory the origin of architecture is the being of architecture (al-wojud) and the essence of architecture (al-mahiyyat) is manifested through its being. If the architect is higher in the rank of being his designs will also be higher and more spiritual. Therefore as mentioned, there is no doubt that one of the main goals for architecture is to create the perfect place and to promote the human presence (al-hozur). To improve the rank of human being by the effect of space is among the most sublime objectives of architecture. According to al-wojud Philosophy and Mulla Sadra, when an architect designs the different parts and details of a building it is necessary to emphasize the overall structure of notion and so the overall structure of space and of the geometry which is known as the architecture generator. The two mentioned elements are such abstractions in architecture and to emphasize them is to help us accept the concepts and principles of the being (al-wojud) for the prospective architecture considering the variables that influence it. This structure is basically a coded architecture. Since al-hikmat al-mota'alie is based on alhikmat al-eshragh and in alhikmat al-eshragh god or al-wajeb al-wojud is equal to the absolute light, therefore the light manifested in architecture, is an allegory of al-wajeb al-wojud or god. The sublime architecture upgrades man to the level of meaning and wisdom and leads him toward the perception of al-wajeb al-wojud. Architecture answers to this character of perception by metaphor. According to Sadra's point of view Subscription between the human spirit and architecture is required so that the presence of pure meaning in human perception is based on the human presence (al-hozur) itself.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Keywords: alhikmat almota'alie, being of architecture, essence of architecture, the unity of being(vahdat al-wujud), the primary of being(asalat al-wujud)
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