1دانشیار و عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده هنر دانشگاه الزهرا
2دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد رشته پژوهش هنر دانشکده هنر دانشگاه الزهرا
"سهروردی" یکی از فیلسوفان و حکیمان بزرگ مسلمان، فلسفه خویش را بر اساس "نور" استوار کرده است؛ نظریهها و آموزههای شیخ اشراق، تاثیر زیادی بر باور و عملکرد هنرمندان ایرانی داشته است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر، نحوه تلقی سهروردی از نور و مراتب انوار را مورد بررسی قرار داده است و سعی دارد تا نحوه تجلی نور خُرَّه یا نور ملکوتی را که در حکمت اشراقی سهروردی اهمیت زیادی داشته، در این هنر مشخص نموده و به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که کدام عناصر، تجلی نور حکمت اشراق در معماری ایرانی اسلامی هستند. در این پژوهش، گردآوری اطلاعات به روش اسنادی و روش تحقیق به صورت توصیفی و تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی است. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده هیچ نماد و مظهری مانند نور، به وحدت الهی نزدیک نیست و بدین جهت معمار ایرانی و مسلمان کوشیده است حتیالامکان در آنچه میآفریند از نور استفاده کند. عناصری چون مناره، محراب، مقرنس، کاشی، طاقهای مسلسل (پیوسته)، شیشههای رنگی و حضور بارز رنگ زرد و طلایی، همگی نمادهایی از نورالانوار هستند؛ و همینطور مفهوم خُرَّه یا نور ایزدی در معماری، به صورت شمسه و بکارگیری سطوح مشبک به شکل هالهای نورانی در زیر گنبد، تجلی پیدا کرده است.
Manifestation of Khorrah Light [the Divine Light/Illumination] in the Iranian-Islamic Architecture from Artistic and Mystic Aspects
With an Emphasis on the Ideas of Sheykh Shahab ad-Din Suhrawardi
Sheykh Shahāb ad-Dīn Suhrawardī, as one of the great Moslem philosophers and theologian, founded his philosophy upon the doctrine of Illuminationism. His theories and teachings have deeply influenced the beliefs and performances of the Iranian artists. In view of this, the present research aims at investigating Suhravardī’s understanding of Illuminationism and hierarchy of lights. It also tries to trace manifestations of the khorrah light (or the Divine Light), which was of utmost significance in Suhravardī’s doctrine of Illuminationism, in the art of architecture. Finally, it is tried to answer the question “Which elements signify the manifestation of the Light - as conceived of in the Illuminationist Philosophy – in the Iranian-Islamic architecture?” Sheykh of Ishrāq [Suhrawardī] called God ‘the Light of All Lights’ [Nūr-ul-Anwār] and believed that the heaven and earth are made of God’s light; and all beings enjoy His light in proportion to their closeness to His light. He also believed that the light as existing at the stages of sense and matter is inferior to the light that exists in the more exalted stages. That is to say, the closer one gets to the Source of Light - ‘the Light of All Lights’ [Nūr-ul-Anwār] – the purer and brighter the light they get will be. Therefore, separation from the matter translates into moving and getting elevated toward the Source of Being and the Light of Existence and avoiding the lowest levels of existence and shadows. Furthermore, there is an eternal tie between art and philosophy/wisdom. The reason is that they are both perceived intuitively and expressed enigmatically. Therefore, it is through meditation and self-discipline that an artist may attain at that angel-like insight, which is the source of all celestial arts. Such works of arts are the fruits of an artist’s quest in the spiritual world and intuitive perception of the truths there. Like the Divine Knowledge and the doctrine of Illuminationism, the traditional art is expressed in the language of enigma, the very characteristic feature that enables it to establish an association between the most far-fetched inward concepts and the most superficial level of the existence in the outward world. From the above perspective, light is considered the symbol of existence in the sphere of the Islamic Architecture; and due to the fact that the mosque, regarded as the heart of the Islamic Architecture, is where all the secrets and mysteries of this architecture is manifested, the present article deals with the symbols of light in the architecture of mosques. The doctrine of Illuminationism propagated by Suhrawardī and other Illuminationist philosophers has influenced the Iranian culture and art (particularly, during the Timurid and Safavid rules, when Sheykh ‘s ideas were in their heyday). As one can obviously see in their works, Iranian architects had a spiritual approach toward light, like the Illuminationist philosophers of their homeland did. Manifestation of the Divine Light in the form of words of Azān [the Call for Prayers] from minarets, provision of light through envisaging lamps in the epicenter of mihrabs (i.e., the mishkāt), installation of Koranic tablets containing verses from the Nūr Chapter, and the arch-shaped mihrabs and the muqarnases therein…, they all appear to be the incarnation of lights, which symbolize the stage on which the Divine Lights shine. Application of ‘shamsehs’, the arrangement of skylights on the domes, the muqarnases that absorb the light and diffuse it delicately, the latticed windows that let pass the light, the reflection of the light in the bright enameled tiles, continuous vaults, and the colorful glasses, which signify the unity in diversity with their harmonious colors functioning as a medium of transmitting the light, and presence of yellow and gold colors symbolizing the Light of All Lights [Nūr-ul-Anwār] in the terrestrial world…, they all substantiate the fact that the Iranian architects had an Illuniationist viewpoint and practiced under the influence of that doctrine Because the Iranian Architecture is all about light and illumination. The survival of everything hinges upon light. For the purpose of this research, data and information were collected through documentation, the research was conducted on a descriptive basis, and the analysis was made in an analytical fashion. Based on the results obtained, no symbol or manifestation compares to the light in terms of its affinity and propinquity with the Divine Unity. For the same reason, the Muslim Iranian architects have tried their best to use light in whatever they created. Elements like the minarets, mihrabs, muqarnas [corbels], tiles, continuous vaults, colorful glass, and conspicuous presence of yellow and gold colors are all symbols of the Light of All Lights [Nūr-ul-Anwār]. In like manner, the concept of ‘Khorrah’ or the Divine Light has manifested itself in architecture through ‘Shamseh’ and application of latticed surfaces like luminous halos under the domes in the Iranian-Islamic architecture. Therefore, the role of light in the Islamic architecture is to symbolize the Principle of [divine] Manifestation. The utmost function of the elements applied in the architecture is manifestation of God; that is, ‘the Light, and the manifestation of the Ubiquitous Light of the firmaments and the earth, that is, the Only True Being. That is why the Iranian architects would try their best to use the element of light in whatever they created. One of the fundamental notions in Iranian’s Doctrine of Illuminationism on which Suhrawardī placed primary emphasis, is the notion of ‘Khorrah’. ‘Khorrah’ signifies observation of the Divine Lights by the spiritual wayfarers [sālek] in course of their spiritual journey. In the traditional art of Persian miniature, khorrah was is delineated as a halo around the heads of the characters. In architecture, the same has been demonstrated in the form of ‘Shamseh’. The circular layout of the skylights under the domes and the way light enters through the latticed windows clearly conjure up the image of a luminary halo in an emphatic mode. Manifestation of the khorrah light in the form of shamsehs and the skylights of the mosque domes can be regarded as another significant finding of this study.
● The Holy Quran. ● Amin Razavi, Mahdi (1998) Suhrawardi and the School of Illumination, Tehran, Markaz Publisher. ● Ansari, Mojtaba (1988) Designing Principles Of Traditional Islamic Architecture, Master Thesis in Architectural Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University. ● Ansari, Mojtaba (2002) “Decoration In Iranian Art and Architecture of (Islamic Period with an Emphasis on Mosques),” Modares Honar Journal, Issue 1, 59- 74. ● Ardalan, Nader and Laleh Bakhtiar ( 2009) The Sense of Unity, Translate by Hamid Shahrokh, Isfahan, Khak Publisher. ● Bolkhari, Hasan (2005) Spiritual Foundations of Islamic Art and Architecture, Tehran, Islamic Propagation Organization: Hoze Honari, Soreh Mehr. ● Burckhardt, Titus (1986) Art of Islam, Language and Meaning, Translate by Masoud Rajab Nia, Tehran, Soroush Publisher. ● Burckhardt, Titus (2007) Spirit Of Islamic Art: Proceedings of the Foundations of Islamic Art, Translation and Editing by Amir Nasri, Tehrant Haghighat Publisher. ● Corbin, Henry (2009a) Wisdom Illumination in the Twelfth Century AD in Iran, Translate by Seyed Ziaodin Dehshiri, Tehran, Tehran University Faculty of Literature Journal, (6)1. ● Corbin, Henry (2009b) Islam in Persia, Translate by Reza Kohkan, Volume 2, Association of Iran's Cultural Philosophy. ● Corbin. Henry (1977), Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth (From Mazdean Iran to Shi'ite Iran), Translated From French by Nancy Pearson, Paris, Princeton. ● Ebrahimi Dinani, Gholam-Hussein (2007) Radius Of Thought And Intuition,In Suhrawardī’s Philosophy, Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. ● Ebrahimi Dinani, Gholam-Hussein (2009) “Originality Light,” Ketab-E Mah-E Falsafe: Issue 119. ● Eftekhari Rad, Fatemeh (2001) The Mosque Architecture, from Proceeding of the Second International Conference On Mosque Architecture, Tehran, Ofogh Ayandeh and Publication of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. ● Ghoreishizadeh, Abdolreza, (2008), Isfahan Seven Colors of Art, Isfahan, Mirdashti Academy of Art Publisher. ● Hillenbrand, Robert (2001) Islamic Architecture: from Function, and Meaning, Translate by Dr. Ayat Allahzadeh Shirazi, Tehran, Rozaneh. ● Kamal. Muhammad (2006), Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ● Kamali Zadeh, Tahereh (2010) The Metaphysical Foundations of Art and Beauty According To Shahab-Addin Suhrawardi, Tehran, Farhangestan Honar Publisher. ● Khosh Nazar, Rahim and Mohammadali Rajabi (2009) “Light and Color in Iranian Painting and Islamic Architecture,” Ketabe Mahe Honar: 70- 77. ● Khosh Nazar, Rahim: (2007) “Light and Zoroastrian Art,” Negareh Scientific Research Quarterly Journal, Issue. 4, 19- 33. ● Mahdavinejad, Mohammadjavad (2013) “The Quality of Light-Openings in Iranian Domes (with The Structural Approach),” Naghshejahan Semi Annual Scientific, Issue 3, 42- 31. ● Nasr, Seyed Hossein (2006) Knowledge and the Sacred, Tehran, Suhrawardi Office Of Research and Publication. ● Nasr, Seyed Hossein (2010) Islamic Art & Spirituality, Translate by Rahim Ghasemian, Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. ● Norbakhsh, Sima (2011) Light In Suhrawardi’s Wisdom, Tehran, Hermes Publisher. ● Norbakhtiar, Reza and others (2008) Isfahan Pearl of the World, Tehran: Honar Saraye Goya Publisher. ● Pourjafar, Mohammad, Ali Akbar Taghvaee, Sakineh Maroofi (2012) “The Role of Religious Spaces in Recent Development Plans: (with Particular Refrence To The Prepared Plans in Tehran),” Naghshejahan Semi Annual Scientific, Issue 2, 30- 19.