1استادیار دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی تهران، تهران، ایران )نویسنده مسوول
2دانشیار دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی تهران، تهران، ایران
3دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی تهران، تهران، ایران
با اندک نگاهی به آثار هنری ایرانیان و تأملی کوتاه در آن ها درمی یابیم که سرچشمه تمامی هنرهای ایرانی برگرفته از تجسم عینی اندیشه مردمانی است که تاش کرده اند جهان بینی خود را در قالب آن هنر بیان کنند. طبیعت دستاورد معمار هستی، خداوندگار عالم است و اغلب برای معماران سرچشمه الهام بوده است. به دلیل گرایش ذاتی و فطری انسان ها در تعامل با طبیعت و تأثیرات قابل توجه ارتباط با طبیعت در روح و جسم آدمی ، بشر همواره ب هدنبال ایجاد رابطه ای منطقی و مناسب میان فضای درون و طبیعت بیرون بوده است. امروزه نیاز جسم ی و روحی انسان به برقراری ارتباط با طبیعت موجب گردیده که در همة جوامع، طبیعت به مثابه میراث فرهنگی تلقی شود؛ از ای نرو باغ ایرانی ب هعنوان نمونه متعالی از منظر ایران، تصویر باورهای انسان ایرانی اسامی در بطن تاریخ است که علی رغم ناملایمات، همچنان به عنوان الگویی موفق از آن یاد می شود. باغ در مقام برخوردگاه آدمیان و اندیش ههایشان و به عنوان میعادگاه زمین و آسمان و نقطه تلاقی عملکرد و پندار، بهترین جای تجربه عرفانی است. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر توجه به ارتباط انسان با طبیعت، عناصر طبیعی و تشخیص جایگاه باغ ایرانی در نوع برخورد انسان با طبیعت است. روش پژوهش ضمن مطالعه اسنادی و کتابخان های و مطالعات تطبیقی از نوع توصیفی است. نتایج به دست آمده حا کی از آن است که ارتباط با طبیعت ضرور یترین شرط برای هنرمند است. هنرمند انسان است: او خود طبیعت است، بخشی از طبیعت و در میان فضای طبیعی، طبیعت در بسیاری از راهبردهای منتهی به خلاقیت معماری تأثیر می گذارد. طبیعت همیشه در همه جا حاضر و طبقه بند یناپذیر و ب همثابه ابزاری بسیار قدرتمند برای الها مبخشی است. حضور آن در استعاره، تقلید، تغییرپذیری فرم و مصالح معماری آشکار است.
The Relationship between Human & Nature in Iranian
Paradise from Islamic Architecture Viewpoint
By a brief review of Iranian art works, we will understand that all Iranian art masterpieces come from and are affected by the concrete expression of the specific idea of those people who intent to embody their special beliefs and worldviews using those arts. Relationship of man with nature as well as the role of nature in urban areas and its subsequent influence on human life is one of the most significant issues that may be addressed through research on the relationship of man and nature along with identification of their mutual impacts, since nature is a representation of perfection in mankind and the ultimate beauty as it contributes to realization of life and its values. Awareness of human to the benefits provided by the green space serves as a prelude to man’s perception of creating artificial environment, light and darkness, noise and silence, and subsequently motion and inertia, because particular attributes of green space are in line with man’s cognizance of needs. Meanwhile, due to the Islamic approach of this paper, Islamic views on nature and its relationship with mankind should be discussed, since numerous verses of Quran have cited nature, making it easier for us to figure out this relationship. An inseparable link may be found in Islam between man and nature as well as natural sciences and religion. By abstaining from complete detachment of man and nature, Islam has retained its integrated approach towards universe. Indeed, mankind is a gateway to grace and mercy for the nature. Therefore it can be said that the garden is a holy place which is reminiscent of reconstruction of the cosmic event and rebirth of the world; a real world between the world of senses and the world of pure reasoning with a feeling of plurality and multiple spaces which leads to emergence of a divine feeling of separation, peace and eternity with some kind of hierarchy in the combination of the components and elements. Before being a manifestation of the territory and historical eras, gardens demonstrate the human beings’ thoughts and beliefs. The physical structure of gardens has undergone incredible changes by change in the religious thoughts (aspirations and beliefs). In this way, religion has played a decisive role in creation of gardens. The nature, the universe architecture’s achievement, God, is often inspiration for architectures. Because of human’s inborn tendency to nature and notable impacts of relationship with nature in soul and body of human, human always has been seeking to find a reasonable relationship between inside space and outside nature. Today, physical and psychological needs of humans to communicate with nature, is a reason that in all societies, it is converted to cultural heritage; however Iranian paradise as a excellent example is a picture of Iranian beliefs that despite of harshness, still is a successful pattern. The paradise in interaction between humans and their thoughts and as a meeting place for sky and earth and interaction between function and thoughts is the best place for mystical experience. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the formation of a Persian garden becomes possible, what are the type of used elements and spatial arrangement in it. In Persian Garden replacing the circular shape, which is different from other geometric shapes, is feasible. The circle is the point of spreading, symbolism or symbolic interpretation that covers the concepts of excellence, integrity and the absence of any distinction and separation. In addition to the concept of perfection that exists implicitly within the eternal circle, it also symbolizes creativity and creation of the universe. There are different climates in Iran, so the variety of vegetation in Iran is in abundant. The application of these types in green space architecture intensifies the variety and ecotypes (in color, form, size and adaptability) and also increases the success of coefficient certitude of the design and design flexibility. Having plants in green spaces is a vindication of climate and cultural capability. Due to reaching the international standards of green space per capita, we need more green space several times than the current one. Human innately likes nature. Humans’ need of vegetation and nature has been a biological and vital need from the beginning of the creation. This is a physiological need. Due to that it consists of a physical-chemical force in the brain that organizes all human rational and perceptional capabilities and guides them. The needs can be different from being urgent one or normal one and if human’s primary needs are not satisfied, a stronger aggression may be needed. Green spaces are full of varied colors, but the green color is dominant among them. From a psychological point of view, green is basically a tranquilizing color and mentally can make the space tolerable for the crowds assembled in such centers. When a person goes back to the nature and sees green trees andbeautiful flowers with water sounds and birds twittering, delightful moments are created for him/her. In the recent decades, due to changes in the social structure of the country, the majority of the patterns used for the designing urban public green spaces are those of Western parks. Moreover, the vertical growth of the cities in response to the shortage of available urban lands and the consequent dearth of green spaces has accentuated the already present need for parks. These two factors gave rise to the wide use of Western park patterns by urban designers and planners as it well provided both the need for green space and public spaces. In consequence, the Persian garden patterns, which during the years of Iranian history had been of regular use in the construction of landscapes and also enjoyed the numerous researches revolving their stability and aesthetic and psychological aspects, were eclipsed by the Western patterns. The following research was carried out in order to provide an answer to an important question; that is, how it would be possible to use the patterns of Persian gardens instead of those which belong to the Western parks in designing the urban public green spaces. The main aim of this study is to focus on relationship between human and nature, natural factors and to recognize the ranking of Iranian paradise in a kind of interaction between human and nature. The research method is documentary study and library-based, and the comparative studies are descriptive. The findings show that the relationship with nature is the most necessary condition for artist. He/she is nature himself/ herself, as part of nature and nature, via natural space, in many ways has impact on innovation of architecture. The nature is always present everywhere and is a powerful tool for motivation. Its presence is obvious in metaphor, imitation, variation form and architectural materials.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Iranian paradise, Human interaction with nature, nature, Geometry and nature
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