1استادیار برنام هریزی شهری و منطقه ای، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران -نویسنده مسئول
2دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی اسلامی هنر اسلامی تبریز ، تبریز، ایران
3کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
تسلط نظام سرمای هداری برفضاهای شهری، شهرها را با چالش های بسیاری روبرو کرده است که یکی از مهمترین این چالش ها، ب یعدالتی فضایی و نابرابری در توزیع خدمات در شهرهاست. این چالش ها، در دهه 1960 و 1970 میادی توسط اندیشمندان شهری نئومارکسیست همانند هنری لوفور، مانوئل کاستلز و دیوید هاروی شناسایی و مورد نقادی قرار گرفت. پی شقراولان عدالت در فضاهای شهری به دلیل وابستگی شان به مکاتب بشری و همچنین داشتن نگاه ت کبعدی و ایستا، نتوانستند تا کنون به یک چارچوب مفهومی از عدالت در فضاهای شهری برسند؛ این در حالی است که در آموزه های مکتب اسام، مفهوم عدالت، یک مفهوم پویا و چندجانبه بوده و عدل و حق لازم و ملزوم هم به حساب آمد هاند و عدالت به عنوان یک ابزار مهم برای رساندن حق به صاحب واقعی اش معرفی شده است. این تحقیق از نوع توسع های بوده و در آن از روش تحلیل منطقی استفاده شده است. هدف تحقیق، ارائه چارچوب مفهومی از عدالت اسامی در فضاهای شهری است. برای تبیین این چارچوب از شش معیار " برابری فرص تها، آزادی، نیاز، اصل تفاوت، استحقاق، منفعت عمومی " استفاده شده است که این معیارها از متون علمی و اسامی استخراج شد هاند. چارچوب مفهومی ارائه شده بیشتر متوجه محتوای برنام هریزی شهری است تا فرآیند آن.
Determination of Conceptual Framework from Spatial
Justice in Urban Planning with Focus on the Justice
Concept in Islamic School
No doubt, the performance of any plan and design for some of citizens is good and for other citizens who have less social and economic power is bad. From this viewpoint, urban development plans and designs are one of key tools for reduce economic-social discrimination and inequity in distribution of public resources in cities. This important, first was considered by Henri Lefebvre, Manuel Castells and David Harvey and John Rawls in 60th and 70th centuries. Spatial justice Concept is a debatable and variable concept. The issues of spatial justice have proliferated during the past two decades. Researchers of spatial justice dimensions have spanned the social sciences, and their definitions and ambitions have varied, as do the indicators with which they tried to measure the postulated goal. For some, spatial justice is just equal access for the basic public facilities, measured in distance, such as accessibility to school, health facilities or culture events. For others, spatial equity is more ambitious and would include a choice of jobs and a choice of accessible educational institutions. Also, it would include a choice of cultural events, not just a local or regional amateur theatre, for different target groups and different age groups. Liberal thinkers in the definition of justice rather are focusing individual liberty and Eligibility (the difference between individuals), and Socialism Thinkers on need and equity in the distribution and production. In Islam school, justice is defined based on the right. The justice in Islam, with clear rules and mechanisms, right Deliver to its original owners, and preserve from human dignity (understanding of right-oriented from justice). Spatial justice concept in city has moved from social aspect to distributive justice and finally to spatial concept. Justice-oriented city helps to normative dimension of urban planning. However, the demand for distributive justice is necessary, but it is not sufficient alone. The Because of distributive justice neglect from structural injustice that root in power relationship in society. This theme and viewpoint from spatial justice suggests good city pattern, a city that it not only has distributive equally in resource but it supports from the development of human capabilities for all. Therefore, it is necessary to define a framework for just city. According to the dominant comprehensive-rational paradigm, urban planning in Iran has become in to a tool for domination of the powerful landlords to the city. Urban planners in spite of having of good intentions and the ideal have been taken in position of city enemies and People also turned into illegality anti. In general we can say that urban planning thought in Iran has taken slave of capitalism system and has retreated to functionalism and personal interests. Despite of urban planning retreat, we want to return to a city from normative viewpoint and move to the city-based justice. Thus, explaining a conceptual framework from spatial justice and its application can abundant help to urban planning in Iran. In this way, help to take the Islam teachings can be very useful. For achieving to this framework, we require to determine the criteria of spatial justice. The criteria of spatial justice are different and those depend on time, place, and political and social condition of society. However, accepting criteria of spatial justice in this study that those were extracted with the logical analysis method and based on Islam academy tenets are: (1) liberty: The active participation of citizens in decision-making, decision-making in urban planning, and also having right of citizens in everyday activities in city, (2) needing: Distribution of city resources and services tailored to the needs of the urban neighborhoods and areas, and any deviation from this distribution is supported by the deprived people of this deviation, (3) the difference: The defending differences in society, (4) eligibility: The criteria referees in the social theme to individuals ability and the geographical environment theme to and the references and potentials of environmental, social, economic and cultural-, (5) public benefit: The criteria focuses on individuals access to services based on their participation level and The main purpose of this criteria is to allow freedom of expression to group differences in cities- and (6) equality of opportunity: the providing equal opportunities for all people in access to city resources and utilities. These criteria show that justice-oriented urban planning refer to issues such as the equitable distribution of services, the right to the city, analysis of power relations, participatory and collaborative planning and so on. Thefindings of the research show that justice-oriented urban planning away from slogan state, it needs to attend to difference in society, to strong noise of low class of society in power relationships, to attend to participatory planning and citizens rights. In according to said literature on above, the present research proposals for explaining the concept of spatial justice in Iran urban planning are: expressly authors state that the present proposals in this research aren’t complete. It is hoped that with efforts of urban thinkers and experts, these proposals are completed. It is Necessary to achieve justice in the city, we away from the urban policies of authoritarian and single lecture and we approach to collaborative politics in urban planning. Whereas, dominant paradigm of Urban Planning in Iran is comprehensive- rational planning paradigm, it can’t gain to spatial justice in cities. Therefore, we need to achieve spatial equity and justice in our cities to change our urban planning paradigm from comprehensive rational to justice-oriented urban Planning. Also it is necessary that we attend to values such as right and justice which are not merely given from up to citizens. Those ( at least in structural state ) aren’t giving, but those are getting. Urban planning theories in Iran neglect from the spatial and social structures in cities and those more focus to the planning process. This approach has been led to urban planning theories in Iran casual. Thus, attention to the urban planning content is important in justice oriented city planning.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Social Justice, Special Justice, Urban Planning, Islamic School
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