1استادیار دانشکد هی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران. نویسنده مسوول
2دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری-گرایش فناوری، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران
گسترش تکنولوژی و بنیان های صنعتی مسایلی تازه را پیش روی انسان گشوده و این ما را به طرح سؤال در مورد چیستی، نحوه حدوث و رابطه اش با انسان برم یانگیزد. این مطالعه در جهت تعریف نسبت انسان و فناوری سعی دارد با تحلیل آرای پیرامون فناوری بر مبنای اندیش ه دینی و هویت اسامی ایرانی، مبانی نظری و نحو ه پذیرش آن را در جامع ه با تأ کید بر حوزه معماری و شهرسازی بررسی کند؛ مطالعه تحقیقی پایه ای تحلیلی است که با جم عآوری داد هها به صورت کتابخان های، پیشین ه موضوع مطالعه شده و به تحلیل و نتیج هگیری از آن ها پرداخته می شود. یافت ههای پژوهش نشا ن م یدهد که تعارض بنیادی میان اندیش ه دینی و فرهنگ اسامی ایرانی با فناوری وجود ندارد، بلکه نگاه متصرفانه به هستی، فناوری را در تعارض با ساحت دین و فرهنگ قرار م یدهد. از نظر کارکردی استفاده از فناور ی در فضاهای جمعی و نهادهای شهروندی می تواند زمینه ورود تفکر تکنولوژیک را در حوزه اجتماعی فراهم نماید و کاربرد فناوری در ایجاد زیرساخت های کالبدی به برقراری رابط ه پایدار میان آن و محیط اجتماعی م یانجامد. در آخر بر اساس یافت ههای تحقیق راهکارهایی در بستر فرهنگی و اجتماعی کشور ارائه م یشود تا بتوان ضمن برکنار ماندن از آسیب ها، مفهومی واجد ارز شهای انسانی برای تکنولوژی تبیین نمود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparative study of Islamic thought and other
schools in explanation of the relationship between
human & technology and its function in society and
The development of technology and modern industrial foundations has faced new matters to contemporary human societies. Technology is rapidly changing lifestyles, social interactions and even modern human worldview about him (her)self and existence. Technology-the unavoidable reality of modern world- represented itself as a phenomenon of expanding. The modern techniques have become quite different from the past. Contemporary human involvement with technology is expanding so that a comparison with the former meaning in traditional societies as a means to solve life problems. Technology is changing dimensions of our world and it forces us to ask questions about its relationship with man and society. And this is taking every explorer mind under the question of technology quiddity, method of incidence and quality of its connection with human beings. This study is about to frame below questions to give an explanation about proper relation between technology and human: Can still believe that our attitude and worldview determine the direction of technology? What is the relation between technology and society? Can human and social responsibilities attached to technology? What phenomenal and cognitional quality is technology divulging in its current definition and framework? Is technology an essential reality, and as a purposive structure, does it impose its roots to humans? Or does it have an implemental and neutral relation with them? So that, human will and worldview shape its functions? Is, equating technology and technical artifacts, giving a meaningful definition of it? Or, is there any particular concept traits through technical symbols that should be discovered? What is the relation between human and technology in our (Iran) religion, culture and society? Should we accept technology or say “no” to it? Which way can we choose? Since the advent of new technology in industrial societies, the important issue is the question of how it relates to human. Many schools discussed about this issue and described its damages and ways to solve them. Some of this viewpoints, such as traditionalists think that the influence of modern technology is destructive for human due to killing the spirit of objects and relationships. Others, such as technocrats believe that technology is the spirit of our age and its acceptance is inevitable and also useful. But in the middle of these two approaches, other viewpoints related the acceptance or rejection of technology to structures, like Marxists that based on ideological concepts, or like Phenomenologists that seek to understand and penetrate into essence of Tech. But acceptance or rejection and even criticizing, will not open all the dimensions of this phenomenon. Comprehension of technology’s relationship with knowledge and awareness can cause of rupture the dominance of it on society. We can classify these viewpoints in three groups: Those who believe in surrounded life by technology and innate autonomy of it. The other group who believe in that technology is a tool in human’s hand and has no valuable content. But coping with each of these approaches puts us into passive position that without cognition of our situation in technological world, we released ourselves from its recognition. Establishing an active relation with technology is depend on knowledge and to get out of constructed framework of technique. According to its purpose, the study based on basis – analytical research that collecting library data, analysis and descriptive conclusions from them, are its roots. The basic framework of the study has formed in based of gathering the viewpoint of various schools in philosophy of technology. In this context, schools have been selected that more attention has been paid to their opinions and written sources in our country (Iran). In a comparative study has been evaluated the main elements of these schools with Islamic thought in a pathological approach. The results, come from comparative analysis of different schools view, showing that not only technology can’t be understood as neutral phenomena but also finding the theoretical basics, meaning and function of It, is inevitable for the explanation of relation between self and technology. Unilateral approach can’t help us to know the answer of technology question and acceptance or negation of such phenomena.Rather, it should be viewed as a result of distinguishing between phenomenal and existential quality of technology and technical artifacts. Looking into thoughts around technology and analyzing various religious views in the standards of Islamic – Iranian culture, this study attempts to survey theoretical basics and its acceptance manner in our current society. So that with the recognition of structures and the manner of true realization of this phenomena, knowing its defects and can be using it as a possibility to improve human physical and spiritual life. The Conclusions of analytical evaluation of different opinions about technology and its relation with the current technology in societies explain that technology in the contemporary world is different from industrial technology because of the link with data and information. This link give a fluid and flexible trait to technology that makes it able to penetrate through all levels of human relations and social institutions. Rupturing totality and internal unity of technology develops it to human as an opportunity to inaugurate the world and discover new concepts. This interaction depends on getting away from templates and get out of progressive network that will violate the human will and consciousness. The superficial presence of technology in society without a social function and proportion with real needs in developing countries is one of the challenges that could harm the public reception of this phenomenon. Modern technique in terms of physical and conceptual, have fundamental differences with traditional technology. In the past, technology could not be master of human dignity in terms of small-scale and fragmentation, while the contemporary human lie upon an entirely technologic atmosphere. Finally, solutions are given based on results of the research according to cultural and social situation of the country. So that, in addition to avoiding harms and defects of technology, a valuable concept can be explained the late for the sublimation of human in connection with technology.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Technology, human, Philosophy of technology, Islamic thought, Physical environment
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