1کارشناسی ارشد معماری دانشگاه علوم و تحقیقات بروجرد، بروجرد، ایران
2دانشیار دانشگاه علم و صنعت، تهران، ایران )نویسنده مسوول
3استادیار دانشکده شریعتی، تهران، ایران
طراحی مجتمع های ایستگاهی مترو و امتزاج آ نها با موضوع بحران در معماری فرصتی، جهت شناخت چند منظورگی عملکرد فضاهای ایستگاهی فراهم م یسازد. مقاله حاضر می کوشد تا در راستای کاهش آسی بپذیری ها، تمهیداتی جهت استفاده از این فضا ب هعنوان فضای اسکان موقت در شرایط اضطراری قائل شود. سؤالاتی که در این پژوهش مطرح می شود عبارتند از اینکه، آیا یک مجتمع ایستگاهی مترو می تواند ضمن ایفای نقش، ب هعنوان یک ایستگاه و مجموعه فرهنگی تجاری، در مواقع بحران تبدیل به یک فضای اسکان موقت بشود؟ و اینکه چه عواملی روی انعطا فپذیری معماری ایستگاه ها تأثیرگذارند؟ با توجه به فرضیات تحقیق ب هنظر می رسد ا گر ایستگاه مترو ب هصورت چند منظوره طراحی شود، م یتواند پاسخگوی نیازهای مردم در قالب فضایی جهت اسکان موقت باشد و اینکه مؤلفه هایی مانند تطبیق پذیری و سازگاری فضایی تأثیر زیادی روی انعطاف پذیری معماری ایستگاه ها دارند. چارچوب نظری بر اساس پیشینه تخصصی آن شکل گرفته، روش تحقیق، روش توصیفی )پیمایشی دلفی( می باشد و نتیجه پژوهش با استناد به مؤلف ههای انعطا فپذیری که شامل سیزده مؤلفه مؤثر بر ارائه الگویی جهت طراحی یک فضای منعطف در قالب پرسشنام ههایی در اختیار 50 متخصص قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که دو عامل )سازگاری و انطباق( و )تبدیل پذیری( اثرگذاری بیشتری در دومنظورگی طراحی داشت هاند.
Performance Complex Subway Station in Critical
Designing complex subway station and mixing them with crisis management provides an opportunity to understand multi-functional of station spaces. This article seeks to reduce vulnerabilities in the analysis subway stations measures to be considered as temporary accommodation in an emergencies and provide a safe space research questions inclusive weather do you have ability to the performance is also, in addition to its roles as station for transport and cultural and commercial complex; in critical condition become to temporary housing? Or what factors effect on flexibility of architectural complex subway? We have very good station complex in our country. A station complex itself consists of several levels of services areas include entertainment and office. This type of sorting and spatial layout is designed based on the needs. But in this paper we discussed bout benefits of this wide space and advantages of all the facilities and equipment in emergencies. Developing countries, including Iran, in addition to being more prone to accidents and natural disasters than other communities, total human casualties and property damage in case of accident these communities are heavier. To prevent the occurrence, planning to rescue damaged area and temporary accommodation, all communities need new Disaster Management. In the present study we have tried through a multi-functional and flexible design, the central station with the highest integrity economic, social and environmental be prepared to deal with the sudden crises. Despite the unexpected event and the space subway stations is located in the basement created a good spaces for sheltering people affected. Theoretical Framework of research was formed on professional background. Description of the research subjects are used to identify a type of descriptive research. They checked through classified questions by the nature of the condition or a relationship between phenomena. This study uses for recognition of flexible spaces with different activities, after studying previous research, analysis and identification of deficiencies and issues that the extent of the subject matter. Factors were identified and then among them some of the most important factors affecting the enhanced versatility stations and related elements are removed and in the form of a questionnaire was developed. Considering that the present selective approach of the Delphi Survey. These questionnaires gave to professionals and experts in related field to examine their views on this issue answered questions. At the end of the questionnaire they provided the new classification according to their own idea. The thirteen components shaped on the form of a questionnaire. The flexibility of components and elements were created in the form of a table, then each component is associated with a short description and an example and then its influence were examined on the subway stations the fifty questionnaires were prepared and given to fifty experts. After one week about forty persons answered. Finally through analyzing these answers with the software SPSS defined two factors (Adaptation) and (Convertible) have the most effect on multi-functional design. Discuss about flexible architecture used in most developing countries. Use the subway as one of the most important infra structure of transport industry. And different countries follow the various purposes about construction and expansion of the system based on their political and socio-economic strategy and structure. In this research, urban transportation industry used toward protection, facilitating crisis management and reduce potential vulnerabilities and providing satisfaction in critical and noncritical periods. Following the development of the industry in the transportation and services the most of countries used of subway station as space towards temporary accommodation with the aim of maintaining and relief protection. On the other, stations being able to protect of people and providing essential supplies for certain time periods at a critical time. These information is done based on limited studies are available. One of deficiency in new architecture is lack of planning toward multi-purpose use. In the other word we can use from the facilities and equipment for temporary accommodation. Becausepeople take refuge the subway station unconsciously, In this regard in many countries subway stations is used as a shelter space. The main issue in this research is multi-functional and flexible design for example station while there are main function and accessories (transportation and provide daily needs), another function will have to meet the needs of citizens in a secure environment. These views with the aim of identify a plan to solve the unpredictable problems and issues in organization critical and methods to reduce the vulnerability of disaster, including recognition of the six stages of crisis management planning. Planning, forecasting, equipment, coordination, implementation, analysis, documentation and temporary accommodation, and how to solve the crisis management in 3 section including of identification, decision and evaluation of temporary emergency measures and consequence of after crisis, including the reconstruction in low-risk areas, construction of building according to the rules of retrofitting and flexible designing of the building and cities in the faces of crisis. Multi-purpose in architecture while has many advantages, there is a little attention has been paid. The research studies began with introduction includes the purpose and expanse of information about the main problem of the research. After classifying articles, books and theses and noted the main provisions of the existing theories, the case study was cleared. This research began with the most general resources and ended with the most relevant resources. A review of existing knowledge and to clarify the deficiencies found the concepts to understood multi-purpose architecture. After classifying component based on the measure of affectively, these components were described. These categories gave to the expert. In this time adaptation was priority. In the other word the flexible space will have greater flexibility and create the space, that provide needs of travelers and transport, facilities, crisis management, reducing vulnerabilities and satisfaction while helping temporary accommodation. In according to assumption of this research, if complex station designed multi-purpose and considerate required spaces for critical conditions can be held accountable as a temporary accommodation and components such as versatility and consistent spatial have a high impact on flexibility of architectural complexes.
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