2دانشیار معماری دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران )نویسنده مسوول
3دانشجوی دکتری معماری دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران
از آنجایی که معماری مدرن بی توجه به معماری همساز با اقلیم شکل گرفته و حتی باعث مصرف بیشتر انرژی های فسیلی شده و ه مخوانی و سازگاری منطقی با رفتارها وعادتهای مردم نداشته است، استفاده از فناور یهای نوین در ساختمان هایی که با شرایط اقلیمی محیط خود هماهنگ باشند لازم به نظر می رسید. سیستم لای ههای ساختمانی سیستم نوین « تغییرپذیر 1، جداره های ساختمانی ابداعی و نوینی است که در اداره کل مالکیت صنعتی ایران تحت عنوان به ثبت رسیده است. این جداره ها می توانند » ساختمانی با رویکرد منعطف سازی در حیطه عایق حرارتی و پوشش نما با کنترل نور و گرمای روزانه، متناسب با شرایط محیط بیرون تغییر کنند، از این رو در تنظیم شرایط محیطی یک فضا از نظر تبادل حرارت با محیط خارج نقش به سزایی ایفا م یکند. در این مقاله تاش شده است ضمن معرفی این طرح ابتکاری، پنجره و دیوار تغییرپذیر، بررسی و دستاوردهای آن توضیح داده شود. درسیستم لای ههای ساختمانی تغییرپذیر برخاف جداره های رایج، دیوارها به صورت ثابت طراحی نشده است، همچنین بلکه قابلیت تغییر رنگ، میزان شفافیت و کنترل مقدار نور عبوری از دیوار، کاهش یا افزایش ظرفیت و ذخیره حرارتی، همچنین قابلیت جابجایی مکان عایق حرارتی ب هصورت دستی یا خودکار توسط کامپیوتر، از جمله مزیت های این سیستم می باشد.
Introducing an Innovative Variable Building Layers
Architectural Survey in recent decades shows that the modern architecture has not been considered compatible with climatic conditions and it not only causes Environmental pollution but also increases cooling and heating costs. Nowadays architects are looking for appropriate solutions to design buildings that can be in harmony with their environment and climate. As there are different seasons and days in each climate, so designing building system that can vary with ambient conditions seems necessary. Since the sunlight is one of the most important and effective climate factors in indoor conditions, in order to control of heat and light in the window, author got the basic idea from the shadow of a cup of tea. If the colored liquid is injected between double glazed windows, light passing through the window will reduce a lot. Variable Building Layers System (V.B.L.S) is an innovative design that has been patented by the author and can control heat transfer in buildings and improve thermal comfort. The system has been designed based on the basic idea after some trial and error and includes three main components: transparent layers, color tanks, pump and control valve. Its transparent layers can be made of tempered glass or Plexiglas that both of them are separated by a spacer. The way it works is that colored liquid is injected into layers through the pump. The system has the ability to change transparency in less than an hour and make one way vision glass, if necessary. Laboratory samples of this design were built during the 8 stages of the process which includes: -1 Controlling light passing through the window by colored liquid, -2 Controlling light passing through the window by various colors, -3 Controlling window visibility and transparency, -4 Creating various colors by mixing primary colors, -5 The ability to use the idea for walls: Using window idea in designing internal walls and Using window idea in designing external walls, -6 The ability to paint a wall with various colors, -7 The ability to move the location of thermal insulation, 8. The ability to control the system by a computer. In this paper, Variable Building Layers System is explained and discussed in detail as it is used for windows and walls. Three transparent layers that is injected colored liquid between them will create variable properties in windows and walls. The main objective was to achieve maximum variability in building walls and it was assumed that changing colors will decrease or increase the light passing through layers, so in order to prove this hypothesis, experiments were performed. Due to different absorption and passing light from various colors their shadow had a different temperature. The main advantage is that these layers vary based on outside conditions by controlling sunlight and heat daily. The external walls was also added a tank of argon gas (as a thermal insulation) to reduce temperature swing inside the building. These layers can achieve benefits such as varying color and transparency, and control the amount of light passing through them, decreasing or increasing the heat capacity, and also moving the location of thermal insulation manually or automatically by computer. Using various colors in windows and walls will provide different thermal and psychological effects on occupants. Opacity or transparency of these layers can provide appropriate view and sunlight because it is possible to make part of the layer opaque and also to allow daylight to pass through from transparent part. It also creates less design limitations for architects. As bright colors reflect sunlight much more than dark colors, so changing color of façade can increase or decrease absorption of solar energy and reduce heating and cooling energy consumption. Based on Johannes Itten’s Color theory, it can make you feel 3 to 4 degrees centigrade warmer or cooler by selecting warm color for winter and cool color for summer without using energy. Each climate requires walls with different heat capacity but in this system it is possible to adjust the heat capacity with indoor temperature. Heat capacity of water is more than air so if the middle layer of the wall fills with water, temperature swing will decrease and also with reducing water level and replacing air, heat capacity will become less. In these walls, thermal insulation can be inside or outside of the walleither manually or automatically by a computer daily. In temporary-use buildings heat is removed after passing through the thermal insulation but it is possible to change location of the insulation towards outside after passing heat and it is not allowed to remove. To sum up, Heat capacity and thermal insulation can vary in every climate based on different seasons that leads to reduce indoor temperature swing. Noting that the heat transfer occurs in the building by three methods, changing layers can make different thermal resistance. As thermal conductivity of water and air and argon is respectively less than the other, heat transfer by conduction and convection depends on what matter and what height layers is filled. Glass walls are able to allow sunlight to enter rooms in the winter (if heating is needed) that absorb and store sun’s warmth and so radiation heat transfer causes a reduction in heating. Another advantage of this system is that external and internal walls are respectively up to 10 centimeters and 3 to 5 centimeters in thickness and so reduced thickness of walls leads to increase surface area and volume of the building. Wall thickness reduction compared to the same walls is noticeable because of reducing weights of building materials. Therefore it will decrease building subsidence and increase earthquake resistance of the building. As previously mentioned glass layers will provide natural light and suitable perspective and even if walls need to clean, these layers will allow washing. According to descriptions, Variable Building Layers System can be use in many buildings such as houses, offices, greenhouse, museums, galleries, libraries and etc., because of varying color of walls, controlling heat and light and moving thermal insulation and generally compatible with each climate.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Climate, Variable Building Layers System, Sunlight, Variability
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