1دکتری پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران. نویسنده مسؤول
2استادیار گروه پژوهش هنر ، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
3دانشیار گروه معماری ، دانشکده هنر و معماری ، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
4دانشیار گروه فلسفه، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
در عصر صفوی، تحت تأثیر مکتب اصفهان و ب هویژه رواج و گسترش اندیشه های معنایی شیعی، نقش مخاطب در ادراک فضا اهمیت عمده ای یافت که این مهم در ساخت بناهای متفاوت ازجمله مساجد این دوره، آشکار است. در مسجد شیخ لطف الله، عاوه بر توجه به اهمیت نقش مخاطب، فرآیند شرکت دادن او در جریانِ ادراک فضا و درگیرکردن حرکت او با کانسپت معماری نیز قابل مشاهده است که این امر از طریق ایجاد تعادل پویا صورت گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر به روش توصیفی، به بررسی جایگاه مسجد شیخ لط فالله از منظر فرآیند فکری در طراحی پیوسته معماری و شهر می پردازد. مسئلهآ غازینا ین پژوهش، بررسی دلایل عدولا ین بناا زا رزش های غالب معماریا یرانیا زجمله تقارن و تعادل محوری و گرایش به نوعی تعادل ناپایدار در طراحی است. نتایج تحلیل نشان می دهد که این بنا با هدف ایجاد رابطه ای جدید میان مخاطب، به عنوان فاعل شناسا و ایجاد فرآیند ادرا کی پیوسته میان شهر و بنا، به طرح تعادل ناپایدار در طراحی پرداخته تا زنجیره پیوسته ای را از تجارب بیرونی فرم و تجارب درونی فضا شکل داده و مخاطب را در کنشی فعال با مفاهیم درونی ساختمان درگیر نموده و او را به جزیی از این فرآیند ادرا کی بدل سازد.
The Role of Dynamic Equilibrium in the Continuous Perception of in Iranian Islamic Urbanism
The establishment of new Isfahan by Shah Abbas was the climax of Safavid architecture. Isfahan wasn’t a new built Islamic city. Actually new capital was constructed beside the ancient city by safavid monarchs aimed to show the glory and Victory of Shiite Islam as opposed to Ottoman dynasty’s capital city. Safavid developed the city Space and added new urban areas to previous one , but new development was aimed to exhibit a great vision of Shiite capital that show both the religious belief and the power of Safavid Dynasty. The main part of new development is Naghsh e Jahan square as the greatest example of Persian Architecture in which the most important public buildings organized around the square: on one side stands the Shah›s mosque , on the other one the Shah›s oratory, called the mosque of Sheikh Lutfallah , opposite side, Ali Qapu royal pavilion that opens in behind onto a large pleasure walkway (Chahar Bagh) and the grand bazaar led to the old mosque on Fridays, the symbolic relationship of religion , government and trade as the various social Factors in public life. This urban square is the most significant and most elegant composition of Safavid world view and Isfahan School philosophical belief to combine the Mystical and religious aspects of human life with everyday life, as a representation of most important Islamic orders that reject the retreating of everyday life in order to worship god. Cooperation a large number of artists and philosophers Shaped one of the most significant periods of Iranian art and architecture in the Safavid capital and the architecture of Isfahan in Safavid era is an obvious sample that shows the close relationship between architecture and philosophy. Affected by thoughts of philosophical school of Isfahan, previous rules of architectural and urban design changed and the role of the audience in perception of space became more important than before. Probably in this period the pure Shiite architecture was represented in all levels, from urban space to architectural atmosphere and even architectural ornaments, but the most important innovation of Architectural design of this era was the enhancement of Audience role as a part of meaning making process of spaces. In other word, Isfahan Safavid Architecture participate persons with their spatial flow of Dynamic spaces to show and allow him to practice the metaphysical sense of Architectural concepts in various contexts from urban area to interior spaces. In this way, the form and space arrangement designed to fulfill the designer’s aim simultaneously. this paper focuses on the combination of form and spatial arrangement design in sheikh Lutfallah mosque how leads in to a new concept , in which not only the structure doesn’t comply with site limitation or inner architectural design necessities, but also the asymmetrical arrangement of dome and main portal contradict main Islamic design principles , in order to create a symmetrical that changes the audience usual mental / visual behavior to understand the building concept and right spatial flow of unusual interior design. Sheikh Lutfallah mosque was the first structure constructed in the new Isfahan. Around the mihrab are the names of the Twelve Shi’i Imams, and the inscription contains the names of Shaykh Lutfallah, Ostad Muahmmad Reza Isfahani (the engineer), and Baqir al- Banai (the calligrapher who wrote it). Its construction stretched over sixteen long years. Mihrab date’s show that it was completed around 1618. The plan of this mosque is rather unusual , compared with the Shah Mosque, the design of the Sheikh Lutf Allah Mosque is quite simple. There is no courtyard and there are no interior iwans. The building itself consists of a flattened dome resting on a square dome chamber. Though, in contranst to the simple structure of this mosque, the decoration of both interior and exterior is exceedingly complex, and in its construction the finest materials were used and the most talented craftsmen employed. Ali Reza Abbasi, the leading calligrapher at the court of Shah Abbas , has decorated the entrance, above the door , with majestic inscriptions with the names and titles of Shah Abbas, the Husayni and the Musavi, that is , the descendants of Imams Husayn and Musa.The inscriptions of the Mosque reflect matters that were preoccupying the shah around the time it was built ; namely the need to define Twelver Shiism. In Sheikh Lutfallah Mosque , the emphasis on the role of theaudience and his participation in process of perception of space seems that has been done by creating a dynamic equilibrium method. Placement of the dome and portico of this mosque, Is such that the audience faces from the beginning with a series of interconnected perceptions linked so makes it possible to detect the concept of interior space within the outdoor area. This study tries to show how this continual perception process designed to shape the audience perception to understand the building as continuity. Article tries to show the role of dynamic equilibrium visual perception of outdoor form of building and inner spaces to create this sense and how the asymmetrical placement of dome in relation to mosque portal creates that. Research used descriptive –analytical method and library resources , to show the reasoning process of this different architectural design as a case study that changes the lateral symmetry and static equilibrium design as a dominant rule in Persian architecture to create a special relationship between audience and building in Shah Abbas’ private mosque as an important building of Isfahan school of Safavid architecture. Results shows that environmental constraints and square master plan don’t play any role in shaping the mosque plan and the designers have a clear goal to change it to achieve their special spatial and visual structure they intend derived from views of philosophy school of Isfahan. The buildings in whole, is such that audience as subject, be faced with a set of continual dynamic equilibrium that shapes audience perceptions so he would become part of process that create the meaning of space.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
design process, audience, dynamic equilibrium
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