1دکتری معماری گرایش تئوری و تاریخ، استادیار دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران .نویسنده مسؤول
2کارشناسی ارشد معماری داخلی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
تداوم فضایی و به طور خاص تداوم میان بیرون و درون مفهومی است که بشر از ابتدا به دنبال تجلی آن در آثار معماری بوده است. در هر دوره از تاریخ معماری شاهد ظهور اصولی جدید هستیم که سعی در برقراری تداوم فضایی به شکلی مناس بتر از قبل دارند. رد پای این اصول را می توان در عصر حاضر و در آثار معماران مدرن نیز پیگیری کرد. پیشرفت فناوری، رهایی معماران از قیدوبند اصول کلاسیک گذشته و بسیاری از عوامل دیگر موجب شد که عالی ترین نوع تداوم فضایی در این دوره به ظهور برسد. در معماری سنتی ایرانی نیز توجه به تداوم فضایی قابل درک است و مانند سیر تاریخی معماری جهان برای رسیدن به تداوم بیشتر میان فضا، در این نوع معماری نیز شاهد تلاش برای برقراری تداوم مناس بتر میان فضاها هستیم، اما برخلاف تداوم در معماری مدرن که بیشتر به دنبال تداوم بصری و فیزیکی است. تداوم فضایی در معماری ایرانی یک حرکت روحانی و معنوی است. بر همین اساس موضوع موردبررسی این مقاله آن است که ببیند معماری معاصرا یران ب هعنوان وارث گذشته پربار خود، درزمینه برقراری تداوم فضایی تا چها ندازها صول معماری سنتی ایرانی را ارتقا بخشیده و از سوی دیگر تا چه حد از معماری مدرن متأثر بوده است
Spatial continuity in contemporary Iranian architecture
Spatial continuity particularly continuity between inside and outside is a concept that man always was looking forward to express it in architecture. It is a trait for expanding a restricted area and relating the spaces to other adjacent spaces in order to have more physical-visual or intellectual-moral motions. Although the boundaries of spaces create spatial order and specify the quality of space, on the other hand, one another trait of architecture is continuity which leads to dynamism and motion. A continuous space is opposite to a closed and interrupted one, so in such spaces there is a spatial locomotion towards horizontal and vertical axis. These motions cause transparency and mobility towards the bulk of materials such as walls and columns in a way that the paths of moving or the directions of the sight are continuous. In the field of architectural expressions, continuity has several types and in this case, one of the categories can be noticed. This classification include four cases such as Historical, Cultural–social, Natural and Spatial continuity. Any of them has its definition, but in what follows, the spatial continuity will be described in detail. Spatial continuity can be studied in four states: First, the interior and exterior; in this case, besides the continuity makes perspective expansion, it inspires the concept of «being inside». The user requires both inside and outside spaces, and also the ability to move between these two spaces. Therefore, the architect should visualize and form inside and outside as a unit concept. Second case, between two interior spaces; flexible interior space, diversity and maximize capacity of space can be achieved in this way. Third, in an interior; this kind of continuity is more understood in a large enclosed space such as a church or a mosque. The fourth state, in the space outside the building; in open spaces or urban spaces can be observed. Any interior space may have continuation in six axes. Spatial continuity can be established through some architectural features, these factors include: Transparent layers; the most important factor to create continuity between two spaces. Transparency can be made by embedding the openings, doors and windows. Axis; axis represent the directions and correlate different elements to each other. In other words, axes connect spaces like a string. Although axes can be defined in various ways, two directions are often stronger than the others because the orientation of human kind is based on the horizontal and vertical direction. Rhythm and Repetition; the most important and most tangible factors that can represent spatial continuity are rhythm and repetition. Continuation and repetition are the basis of continuity. Continuation of surfaces; shared elements between the two spaces arouses a sense of continuity to the spectator. Continuity will be well understood when the surfaces of the floor, wall or ceiling of a space stretches to another space. Intermediate space; intermediate space (the third space) is one of the main factors of continuity and sequencing of architectural elements. Although this item separate two spaces, it causes the continuation without any separation between them. In each ancient and modern architecture, new methods can be observed, trying to show spatial continuity. In modern age, progress in technology and release of Classic principals (norms) caused the best type of continuity. Modern architects reduced the confliction of inside and outside and ignored the role of walls as separator elements by eliminating the boundaries of interior space. Modern architecture incorporated inside and outside to let them form one unique continuous space, without any difference between interior and exterior space. Spatial continuity in modern architecture: In modern architecture a continuous space is created by eliminating or neglecting the role of walls (separators). Therefore, there is no difference remains between inside and outside. The boundaries have become smooth, so visual continuity and accordingly, spatial continuity arises. In other words the walls lose their existence and permanency, the conflict of inside and outside is eliminated therefore the meaning of inside is weakened. The same as universal architecture, there are some rules in ancient Iranian architecture to represent spatial continuity, however mentioning the spiritual and moral sides of continuity. Iranian architectural space include three categories from the primitive time: closed, covered and open spaces. These three mainsubspaces define the whole space. Room, as a closed space, porch (Ivan) as a semi closed one and the yard as an open space. Iranian architects always try to track the continuity between these three items in their design process. They have attempted to pass the user through the space unimpeded, promoting the idea of transparency, lightness and spatial continuity, by reducing the bulk of mass and increasing the space. Iranian architectural space can be thought of as a wavy space. Conjunction with unlimited space is created through the light and perspective expansion, and space expansion between the components. Continuity through these spaces were shown spreading natural lights, and the extension of the sceneries and perspectives. Iranian architects tried to reduce the material mass of the building body in order to achieve transparency and spiritual lightness. In this essay we are intending to study the level of effect of traditional Iranian architecture on contemporary Iranian architecture and the level of effect of modern architecture on it, and finally we will make a comparison between them. For this review, a descriptive–analytic observation is set that the criteria of comparison are the factors of spatial continuity of Iranian and modern architecture. For each architectural Style, factors that represent continuity is listed, mentioning that any of these factors can be used in which state, relating the inside and outside. So this will assort results in a set of tables for each Style. A number of public buildings, built during 50 decade till now is selected for analyzing the factors in each group. Four of them will be expounded. At last the results can be observed in a detailed table, along with, a diagram represents the percentage of each factor’s participation in indicating spatial continuity in both Iranian and modern architecture.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
spatial continuity, Transparency, traditional Iranian architecture, modern architecture, contemporary Iranian architecture
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