1استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر تهران، ایران. نویسنده مسوول
2استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، ایران
3استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، ایران
پرداختن به مقولۀ ادراک عمق و فاصله و تحری فهای عامدانه در حوزۀ طراحی شهری، طراحان را قادر می سازد تا از طریق نظ مدهی و چیدمان آ گاهانۀ کیفیات فضایی ب هگون های مناسب و همسو با مقاصد کلی طراحی، این تجربۀ ادرا کی را دستخوش تغییر سازند و بدین طریق آ گاهانه مسیری را کوتا هتر یا بلندتر از شرایط حقیقی آن در ذهن ناظران و استفاد هکنندگان از فضا متبادر نمایند. در این مقاله، از میان رویکردهای نظری متعدد موجود درخصوص نحوۀ عملکرد دستگاه بصری انسان برای ادراک عمق و فاصله، به سبب تأ کید بیشتر متون علمی انتشاریافته در سال های اخیر و نیز از منظر جامعیت نظری، ب ه رویکرد نشانه خواهیم پرداخت. بر اساس این رویکرد، در بخش نخست از این مقاله، تاش شده است با نگرشی علمی و از دریچۀ طراحی شهری، شاخ صترین مؤلفه های تأثیرگذار بر مقولۀ ادراک عمق و فاصله بررسی و تحلیل شوند ؛ مؤلف ههایی که م یتوان با تجمیع یا کاستن از میزان آن ها به طور مستقیم به کنترل نسبی میزان عمق و فاصلۀ ادرا کی در فضای کالبدی پرداخت. در ادامه و در بخش دوم به بحث تحریف های عامدانه با رویکردی کاربردی و با مدنظر قرار دادن قابلیت ب هکارگیری آ نها در طراحی ساختارهای کالبدی - فضایی شهری، پرداخت هشده است.
Modern Urban Design: From Cue Approach to Practical Optical Illusions
Different people have different perceptions of physical space where movement and rest occur. In this regard, perception of three-dimensional space from the point of view of stationary and moving observers can be analyzed from different perspectives including the observer›s favorable or unfavorable perception, persistency and recall capability of the perceived space, the influence of different design variables on the perception, etc. But one of the most important issues which has not attracted due attention in this area and will form the subject of the present study is that of deliberate distortions in the «perception of subjective depth and distance» of a path or space. Indeed, by using the perception of depth and distance and the deliberate distortions in the field of urban design, designers will be able to change this perception experience via informed arrangement of spatial qualities as appropriate in line with the overall design objectives. This way, they can represent a route as shorter as or longer than its actual conditions in the minds of observers and users of space. In this paper, among various theoretical approaches about the human visual system function in relation to the perception of depth and distance, cue approach is discussed due to greater emphasis given to it in scientific literature published in recent years as well as its comprehensive theoretical perspective. Based on this approach, in the first part of this article, an attempt has been made to review and analyze the most significant components affecting the perception of depth and distance using a scientific approach via urban design perspective. These components can be integrated or reduced in order to directly control the relative amount of depth and distance perception in the physical space. For example, the first part of the present article addressed the influence of light, color, perspective etc. On depth perception. Obviously, if we can exaggerate the natural conditions of these signs via representation and re-design, we will be able to bring about a deliberate change in depth and distance. Indeed, measures such as taking advantage of oval forms in flooring instead of circular ones, making informed changes in the perspective view of a pathway or set of buildings, using purposeful color palettes and planned lighting and the like can leave a significant impact on depth and distance perception. In the second part, deliberate distortions and their application in design of physical-spatial structures of urban environment in a practical approach are discussed. In sum, based on discussions presented in this paper, it can be said that the relative contribution of each of structural features of a space, semantic features of visual scene and other factors in the formation of distance and depth perception errors is not known. Moreover, we still cannot consider a desired visual scene and determine whether there are spatial perception errors in memory. Such predictions will not be possible until we have richer and more objective words at hand to describe many possible spatial relationships between the observer and the elements in front of him, as well as the three-dimensional spatial structures.Such terms can form the basis for testing and describing the effects of different variables on perception issues. As mentioned in the article, practical application of depth and distance design and deliberate distortions in urban design can enable designers to change this perceptual experience. This will be possible via informed arrangements of spatial-physical qualities in a direct manner and proportional to the overall design purposes so that a pathway is perceived by observers and users shorter or longer than it is. On the other hand, whether a space appears deep or shallow is in direct association with its perceived length and in turn, its perceived time. This has not received due attention in practical urban design studies. It is obvious that there is a relationship between the environment and the length of perceived time, but what should be pursued in future urban design studies is how people›s physical - behavioral actions are influenced by this relationship. Such findings can be used to meet many non-physical goals in a project. Thus, knowing aboutthe effects of physical-spatial dimensions on depth and distance perception, and thus on the pedestrians› perceived time, a designer will be able to make a short - but the important in commercial, touristic, and cultural terms- path appear longer than it is to observers. The influence can lead to a greater emphasis on the path importance and the likelihood of unconscious pauses therein, and can enhance the formation of longer-lasting mental images and memories in pedestrians› minds. On the other hand, when an urban designer has to decide on the layout and design of a long corridor, he/she can take advantage of distorting the observers› perception and perceived time to make their perceived path shorter. This, in turn, will decrease their mental fatigue, desire to change path, and inattention to activities, functions and structures towards the end of the path. On the other hand, based on what was mentioned in the present article, when we move through a space, scales and level of details of objects are variable in our experience proportional to our distance from them. Thus, our perception of an object in space varies by our distance from it, our speed and the amount of time we allocate to see a particular scene. In this regard, urban design can impose dramatic changes on the observers› perception of depth in a space through deliberate distortions in their views and perspectives. In fact, when the observer›s perception of depth changes, the arrangement and layout of various components in space can appear compressed or expanded to him/her. This compression and expansion can be deliberately applied to strengthen or weaken spatial definition in a specific physical structure. When an observer moves through a space, he/she can experience a variation and fluctuation, not only among the various levels of vision, but also among perceived deep and shallow spaces. Such fluctuation can add to the richness of movement experience in urban spaces. Upon on the purpose of the study it is based on applied research. Due to complexity of depth and distance perception, we used the combination of exploratory and descriptive-analytical research as the methodology. contrasts with usual expectations, which thinks that the telecommunications and virtual spaces can reduce the demand for spatial mobility and it’s infrastructures- but also means that the simultaneous increase in inter-regional functional relations (both electronic and physical communications) between Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya metropolitan areas. Following this, with developing the functional integration between these areas, the distinction of previous boundaries has been faced with many difficulties. Therefore, this situation can cause to the rise of Japanese Mega city-region, named as “TOKAIDO” the greatest spatial unit in the hurt of japan. This fact may signify the rising of new possible changes in the future of urban and regional spatial structure and provide a situation in which, the current urban planning and management methods -based on industrial age spatial principals- face with many challenges. So, the restructuring of urban policy and planning in the information age may be inevitable
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