1استادیار گروه معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران نویسنده مسئول
2استادیار گروه معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران
3دانشجوی دوره دکتری معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران
در طول چند دهه گذشته با افزایش تعداد اتومبیل، خیابان ها تعریفی متفاوت یافته اند؛ خیابان که درگذشته به نوعی تفرجگاه و مقصد به حساب می آمد به محلی برای آمد و شد اتومبیل ها تبدیل شد و با افزایش تعداد اتومبیل ها و خودرو محوری، زندگی اجتماعی از خیابا نها رخت بربست. خیابان به مفهوم تفرجگاه که امروزه در ادبیات تخصصی با عنوان پیاده را ه شناخته می شود ب هعنوان بهترین بستر شناخت و گردش در شهر ها مطرح است. به دلیل آزادی عمل انسان پیاده برای توقف، مکث، تغییر جهت و تماس مستقیم با دیگران در فضای شهری شناخت شهر و محیط بیشتر از طریق گام زدن حاصل می شود. ازاین رو در خیابان های پیاده محور همواره زندگی و تعامات اجتماعی در جریان است. در سال های اخیر تاش هایی برای پیاده محور کردن برخی معابر و بازگرداندن زندگی اجتماعی به آن ها در سراسر دنیا صورت گرفته که با موفقیت یا شکست هایی مواجه بوده است. مقاله حاضر، با مقایسه تطبیقی دو تجربه، بر پایه ادبیات موضوع و پیشینه تحقیق، با تکنیک تحلیلی- توصیفی به دنبال پاسخ به این پرسش اصلی است که کارکردهای اجتماعی خیابان چگونه تقویت می شوند؟ در این راستا دو نمونه از پیاده راه های تجربه شده توسط نگارنده از منظر ویژگی های کالبدی مورد بررسی و مقایسه قرارگرفت هاند. پیاده راه صف)باغ سپهسالار( در تهران و خیابان کِلِر در پاریس تحت معیارهایا ز پیش تعیی نشده مقایسه شد هاند. یافت ههای تحقیق نشان م یدهد که کارکردهایا جتماعی خیابان پیاده محور کِلِر ب هطورکلی بهترا ز خیابان پیاده محور صفا ست. ماحصل پژوهشا رائه پیشنها دهایی جهتا فزایش کارکردهایا جتماعی در پیاده محور نمودن گذرها خواهد بود.
Comparative Comparison Of walkable streets’ Functions with Focus on Strengthening Of Social Life in Islamic-Iranian City
In the past few decades, by increasing the number of cars, streets have a different definition. In the past that, street considered to be a sort of pace for recreation a destination, changed into a place for the movement of cars. Consequently social life vanished from streets. Recently, all over the world, a lot of attempts have been done to make streets somewhere to walk in, and to return social life to them. They have been faced with success and failure. In the past before the formation of streets in current form and the emergence of carriages and cars, the common way of movement was often done on foot. The age of walking goes back to the creation and birth of human being. Creating pavements was the first actions in the form of urbanization. In the recent decades, the so- called walking way has been more common, against streets which belong to roadways. Several word like pedestrian limits (Mall), no cars limits, pedestrian walkway, area (zone) of on foot going, public walkway and traffic- free zone are used in different countries. Walkways are the locations for the attendance of all citizens and their participation in the collective life. These spaces operate in the scale of all cities, and should accept different groups of people. In walkways, citizens are in an interactive relationship with each other, learn to be together, and strive towards improving the collective life. Therefore, social life must always go on in the walkways. That is why liveliness is the basic and vital features of walkways. This space must also be able to attract a wide range of citizens and to harmonize itself with its inside events. So, flexibility is also an important feature of walkways. Finally, what ensures the attendance of all citizens, and permanent living in walkways is the safety of these spaces. According to researches carried out, walking is a part of citizen’s all day trips, and the most important of them. According to statistics represented, in Iran 50% of travels in large cities and 75% of travels in small towns are done on foot. Therefore, pedestrians should be considered as the main component of city transport system, and thus, walkways are the scientific and practical solution for many urban acute problems that can fight with the fall in life quality. Reviews and pathology of pedestrian – oriented space can be a useful tool for designer in designing spaces with high social functions. Because urban spaces as an area for showing of collective life, have a significant role in identification and human interactions, reminisces and create interest for future generations. Improving the quality of these spaces strengthens the motivation of attendance and communicating with the environment in the citizen’s mind and provides his active participation. Walkways as public spaces enable people who don’t know each other, come together in a page of community. Although it seems to be apparently very trivial and unimportant, some of these haphazard and public meetings in the same time and in the same place that necessarily, don’t include any clear responsibility for any one, bring feelings of social confidence, identification and living for people. One of the important aspects of movement on foot is the issue of socio-cultural interactions of people and it has the impact on the vitality of the environment. Jan Gehl in his book “Life Between Buildings” divides people’s activities in public spaces into three categories: Essential activities, Selective activities and Social activities. The climax of this issue is that in open spaces with poor quality only essential activities occur. In open spaces with high quality, essential activities with similar succession occur and people spend more time in doing activities. More important than these, a wide range of social activities occur. This article, comparing the two experiences, based on the literature and history of the research with analytical-descriptive techniques looks for replying to the main question: How are social functions of streets strengthened? In this regard, two of walkways experienced by author, in terms of physical characteristics were investigated. These samples have been selected from the author’s personal experience and theircommon feature is based on walking. The first sample is Saf Street (Bagh- e- Sepahsalar) in Tehran and the other one is Cler in Paris. Saf Street has been located in 12th district in Tehran. In the south, it is limited in Islamic Republic Street and in the north ends in Misbah and Manoochehri Streets, and one of the region’s crowded streets. It is considered to be a market for shoes (Figure 1). Because of traffic congestion and lack of traffic control and some other issues, this passage was reformed and eventually, in recent years it became a walkway. By implementation of walkway plan along this axis, cars entering into the street have been banned and only pedestrians have the right to walk along it. These actions have more than ever made Saf street suitable for tourists walking and spending leisure time that people have. Cler Street situated in the 7th district of Paris’s historic center and at a relatively little distance from a small area of the Eiffel Tower. In the north, its walkway part is limited to Grenelle Street and in the south to Motte Picquet Streets. This street is one of the old local markets of Paris and there are many residential applications and services in its path. In this study, by the way of AHP technique we tried to show the difference between two spaces better. AHP method is flexible, simple and strong. It makes easy to decide in situations that criteria of conflicting decision, when choosing between the options is difficult. To do AHP calculations we should compare each option based on criteria mutually. Saf walkway (Bagh-e-Sepahsalar) in Tehran and Cler Street in Paris have been compared under the preset criteria. The findings suggest that the social function of Cler Pedestrianoriented Street is overall better than pedestrian-oriented Saf Street. Finally it can be said that a responsive pedestrian-oriented street, only through a special type of flooring and car traffic cannot be achieved. At least a set of physical and spatial factors involved in the success of project. Pedestrian in order to attend in urban spaces needs a security that is defined by presence of others, not interfere with the guards and police force. Existences of applications which have various work hours establish a mutual visual relationship with the axis. They give security along with safety to walkways. The presence of pedestrians on the street requires the applications that answer a wider range of individual and social needs. Possibility to sit , study and socialize in a canopy to shelter against the sun and atmospheric precipitation, or there are places for meeting people and solving hunger and thirst during the time one is in the passage is very impressive in encouraging people to be in passages. Walkway streets that act as straight markets for particular profession, more than circulating life in it, are changed into a place to earn living and kinds of commercial buildings that at the end of work hour they will be closed. So they reduce the possibility of social events occurrence.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Street, Walkway Social Function, Saf St, Cler St
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