1پژوهشگر دوره دکتری، عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، دانشگا ه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قم. )نویسنده مسؤول
2دانشیار دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران
تاریخ زندگی بشر همواره دستخوش عواملی بوده که امنیت و آرامش او را به مخاطره می انداخته است. امان گرفتن از بلایا و مخاطرات طبیعی از یکسو و تنازعات بشری از سوی دیگر انسان را وا داشته است تا در کنار تأمین همه نوع نیازمندی روزمره، به راه های کسب امنیت بیشتر اندیشیده و چارجویی نماید. پدافند غیرعامل جزء اصول جدایی ناپذیر جنگ ها و در زمان بحران محسوب می شود به طوری که در جهان امروز بسیاری از کشورها که در عرصه فناوری نظامی صاحب نام هستند، به موازات پیشبرد تحقیقات و تولید سامانه های هوشمند و پیشرفته نظامی، توجه ویژه ای به اقدامات دفاع غیرعامل نیز دارند. محات و ساختمانهای عمومی آن از دیدگاه پدافند غیرعامل برای حفظ حیات و تداوم فعالیت های خود این شرایط ملزم به رعایت معیارهایی خاص می باشند. به جهت دستیابی به این معیارها شناخت تهدیدات و اولویت بندی ساختمانهای عمومی محلی براساس آیتم های گونا گون می تواند به تولید آن کمک شایانی نماید. این اولویت ها بیان می نماید کدام کاربری حساس تر، آسیب پذیرتر ودر زمان بحران بیشتر می تواند مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. هدف ازاین پژوهش اولویت بندی ساختمان های موجود در محله براساس حوزه ضرورت عملکردی، میزان کاربرد در بحران و میزان حساسیت دشمن می باشد. تکنیک مورد استفاده دراین پژوهش دلفی بوده و جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل کلیه متخصصان حوزه پدافند و معماری است که از آنها 12 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب گردیدند. نتایج تحقیق حا کی از آن است که اعضای پانل در اولویت بندی کاربری ها براساس میزان حساسیت دشمن اولین اولویت حمله را به مرا کز انتظامی، پست برق، گاز و منابع آب اختصاص دادند. در اولویت بندی براساس حوزه ضرورت عملکردی درمانگاه ها، مترو، آتش نشانی، پست برق، گاز، منابع آب و مرا کزانتظامی را عملکرد ضروری و هم چنین در اولویت بندی براساس میزان کاربرد در زمان بحران عملکرد مرا کز خرید، درمانگاه ها، مترو، آتش نشانی، پست برق، گاز و مرا کزانتظامی را نیز به صورت حفظ عملکرد موجود در نظر گرفته و بر روی آن به اجماع رسیدند.
The Prioritization of local public buildings in time of crisis based on passive defense approach by Delphi technique
Neighborhoods and public buildings are required to comply with specific criteria from the perspective of passive defense to survive and to continue its activities in conditions of crisis. In order to achieve the criteria, the recognition of threats and the priority of local public buildings based on various items can be helpful. The priorities explain which the user is more sensitive, more vulnerable and in times of crisis can be useful. The aim of the research is the priorities of existing buildings in the neighborhood on the field of functional necessity, the application in crisis and the sensitivity of the enemy. In times of crisis, Cities and accommodation and activity centers as well as public buildings as centers of human and material capital are the target for the enemy and attack them causes great damage. Accordingly, the neighborhoods that form the cities and public buildings in there are always on top of the important purposes of attackers. So through this paper study the urban buildings in the neighborhood of three terms of the amount of applicability in crisis, the sensitivity of the enemy and the sphere of functional necessity. Delphi technique used in this study and the research population included all defense experts and architecture, of which 12 samples selected. In general, the concept and household of neighborhood can be defined as different aspects of social, psychological, mental, cognitive, architecture (physical) and politically. Regarding to the world literature, two words, township and neighborhood can translated as the concept of neighborhood. While included the populations of them, respectively, 2000 and 10000 and 15000 to 40000 people. The first word is residential neighborhood that has a distinct identity but the second word refers to an area that in addition to large size has a diverse career opportunities. In urban classification, neighborhood is the first category and then the region, district, city and beyond, the next field. This neighborhood has the necessary equipment, including schools, supermarkets and entertainment centers. Public buildings of neighborhood that used as the first area of urban buildings including banks, shopping centers, libraries, mosques and religious sites, indoor clubs, schools, small industrial sites, hospitals, clinics and laboratories, emergency centers, subway, bus terminals, car parks, restaurants, fire station, power station, gas station, water and security centers. The purpose of measuring the important urban centers whit this benchmark is to find places that have the most users at the time of the invasion of the city, also have more effects in comparison with other users. This priority known against those places that is not effective in crisis. Identification of such sites has the advantage of looking for lasting strategic locations and finding solutions to maintain the physic and performance of those sites. Also, identify the places that the enemy does not considered as important targets and remove them from the priority of places in order to secure. If the domain of passive defense extended by the presence of some vital services after enemy attack, then the activities and places that are essential will identify during the threats. Other places that are diagnosed unnecessary or less effective, have the potential to change the physic to new performance. Provided that the architectural design is flexible and meet the vital needs of the city. In this study, the Delphi technique performed for the Prioritization of public buildings in terms of passive defense in times of crisis. The first point in the Delphi panel is the way to choose its members so that usually invited 10 to 15 specialists is the best for participation in Delphi. Delphi panel members for this study selected for non-probable sampling and combination of purposive or judgmental and sequential methods of 12 patients. In this method, the panel members usually offer their opinions in numbers, then the average is calculated by agree and disagree panel members, subsequently this information notified to members to obtain new ideas. In the next step, each member offers new opinion or modifies his previous opinion based on information obtained from the previous stage. This process continues until an average number is stable enough.
The questionnaire designed as for the proposed priorities. According to the results shown the average per any local user, calculate by priority on the amount of applicability of the crisis, the sensitivity of the enemy and the sphere of functional necessity. In this way, there is priority on the amount of applicability of the crisis, the sensitivity of the enemy and the sphere of functional necessity for every 10 local buildings. The result in neighborhood suggests that priority applications on the sensitivity of the enemy, the first priority attack in the enemy point of view according to the panel members are military statins, power stations, gas stations and water centers. Mosques and religious sites, clinics and health centers, subway, parking and fire stations are as second priority and the banks, shopping centers and nonprofit services, libraries, indoor clubs, schools, kindergarten and restaurants is considered worthless attack. The priority on the sphere of functional necessity, clinics and health centers, subway, fire stations, power stations, gas stations, water centers and military stations are necessary, parking is rather essential and restaurants, libraries, Mosques and religious sites, indoor clubs, schools and kindergarten are non-performance. Also in priority on necessity in crisis, banks are non-usable, parking, schools and kindergarten, indoor clubs, Mosques and religious sites and libraries have possibility of granting new performance (indirect use) and shopping centers and nonprofit services, clinics and health centers, subway, fire stations, power stations, gas stations, water centers and military stations are a direct function (Maintain existing performance). The results in the prioritization in public buildings in the neighborhood suggest that the use in the prioritization in public buildings the neighborhood includes 10 users and each user also contains one or two sub-user. The applications analyzed based on three priorities (the amount of applicability in crisis, the sensitivity of the enemy and the sphere of functional necessity). The priority applications on the sensitivity of the enemy, the first priority attack in the enemy point of view according to the panel members are military statins, power stations, gas stations and water centers. The priority on the sphere of functional necessity, clinics and health centers, subway, fire stations, power stations, gas stations, water centers and military stations are necessary. In priority on necessity in crisis, shopping centers and nonprofit services, clinics and health centers, subway, fire stations, power stations, gas stations, water centers and military stations are a direct function (Maintain existing performance). Designing complex subway station and mixing them with crisis management provides an opportunity to understand multi-functional of station spaces. This article seeks to reduce vulnerabilities in the analysis subway stations measures to be considered as temporary accommodation in an emergencies and provide a safe space research questions inclusive weather do you have ability to the performance is also, in addition to its roles as station for transport and cultural and commercial complex; in critical condition become to temporary housing? Or what factors effect on flexibility of architectural complex subway? We have very good station complex in our country. A station complex itself consists of several levels of services areas include entertainment and office. This type of sorting and spatial layout is designed based on the needs. But in this paper we discussed bout benefits of this wide space and advantages of all the facilities and equipment in emergencies. Developing countries, including Iran, in addition to being more prone to accidents and natural disasters than other communities, total human casualties and property damage in case of accident these communities are heavier. To prevent the occurrence, planning to rescue damaged area and temporary accommodation, all communities need new Disaster Management. In the present study we have tried through a multi-functional and flexible design, the central station with the highest integrity economic, social and environmental be prepared to deal with the sudden crises. Despite the unexpected event and the space subway stations is located in the basement created a good spaces for sheltering people affected.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Prioritize, neighborhoods, public buildings, passive defense, Delphi technique
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