1دانشیار جهاددانشگاهی- تهران، ایران. )نویسنده مسوول
2عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه علم و هنر- یزد، ایران
3عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه هنر، ایران.
4کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه هنر.
5پژوهشگر گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی شهری پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات اجتماعی جهاد دانشگاهی
مسکن به عنوان یکی از نیازهای اساسی انسان دارای ویژگیهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی است که چند بعدی بودن مسکن، آن را به عنوان یک عامل بنیادی زندگی جوامع بشری مطرح ساخته است. در این بین توسعه جامعه شهری تا حدودی پایه های زندگی روستایی را در خود نهفته دارد. بافت مسکونی روستایی با توجه به نقش و کارکردی که در رابطه با فعالیت های موجود در روستاها ایفا می نماید از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. این مقاله به بررسی ویژگی های معماری برخی الگوهای مسکن روستایی در سه پهنه بندی واقع در استان سمنان می پردازد. به منظور بررسی معماری مسکن روستایی در منطقه با توجه به طبقه آبادی ها، استقرار روستاها و قرارگیری در بافت )که این ویژگی ها می تواند مشخصات معماری مسکن را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد( با نمونه گیری خوشه ای، روستاهای نمونه انتخاب می گردد. شکل درونی و کارکرد خانه های روستایی و نوع مصالح و ترکیب آن ها در بناها نیز مورد بررسی قرار خواهد گرفت. نتایج بررسی های نشان میدهد؛ موقعیت و ویژگی های جغرافیای -اقلیمی نقش تعیین کننده ای در بافت و سیمای مسکن روستایی داشته و نحوه شکل گیری فضاها، کارکرد خانه های روستایی و نوع مصالحی که در ساخت و ساز بافت مسکونی روستا بکار می رود با سنت های بومی و شناخت مردم از فنون تولید مصالح و بکارگیری الگوهای کارا در معماری بناهای مسکونی متداوم و پایدار بوده است.
Indigenous technology and architectural harmony with the climate ; The case of rural housing in the three zones in Semnan province
Every unit which has identity for purposes of role and outward appearance in the geographical space, and its location of the place in the space that is specified, it could be accounted as a building that settlement should be figured as a type of these units. Housing, as one of the basic needs of mankind, has economical, social, and cultural characteristics. Being multidimensional, housing has found its place in the priorities of human life. Meanwhile, development of urban society has found its roots in the rural way of life. Rural housing due to its functional role and its underlying effects on the everyday›s life reserves its own special importance. The rural housing has a remarkable differences to city housing not only from outward appearance aspects but also from respected contains. These differences could be found only by study of compatibility of them with the around natural environment and different housing functions compatible with the environment and villagers activities and besides that the traditional experiences of construction. The rural houses for their residents prepare the necessary spaces for living, store of food and other articles, the place for domestic animals, and a place as a community center for communications, exchange of views and so on. In reality components and spaces forms the elements of house of residential unit and eventually define the functions of rural houses. The rural houses have different functions. The study and investigation of architecture and structures of rural houses not only can recognize the circumstances of construction and experiences of formers in the architectural harmony with the environment and climate but also can be as a light in the improvement road of rural houses in front of responsible persons and experts. In the investigation and recognition of rural settlements, typology of villages in one of the objects that for ease of rural development planning always should be considered. In principal, the rural typology is one of the main rural geographical subjects. Diversity in the type of villages is a consequence of differences of factors and phenomena which has been effective in coming into existence of villages. In human subjects, type of villages as compared with (with regard to) physical factors is more effective of the social and economic structures of villages, although the physical factors also play their role. The spatial establishment model of rural settlements for the reason of dependence of its most productive activities. The natural conditions and factors, more than the urban settlements can be influenced by these factors. The public fabric of rural settlements states the shape, form and model that are resulted from influence of different factors in the village land and the method of connection and interaction of these elements and their characteristics. In this manner, the skeleton fabric of these settlements is the representation of the disciplined method of houses and establishment of agricultural land and also quality of setting the roads and squares (road system) next to each other (saeidi, 53 ,2002). Distinction and differentiation of density rate and shape (form) of each village can help the nature recognition and also the social – economical differences that are ruling it. In this matter, rural housing is manifestation place of livelihood – living methods and eventually forces and environmental key factors and social- economical trends are effective on shaping up them. In this research, the method of study is based on field and document study, that documental method is including written document in the area of rural life and statistical resources. In the field study method for investigation of housing characteristics in the rural fabric, four principal methods of cluster sampling have been used. In this cluster category, it is tried the majority methods and also the ones from space point of view are usable and it is possible to use them in making model and repair for preservation of rural culturalheritage should be chosen. In choosing some models, regional native characteristics are considered in a way that housing as an outcome and product of architecture with the climatic conditioning of the zones are harmonized. Settlements of Semnan province in regard of natural environment characteristics and also from extent and population is confronted by the diversity. In this manner, for sampling, at the beginning, settlements of province based on population and four separated cities have been categorized in four population zones. Then for the reason of natural limitation establishment and forming of the settlements that following it in the fabric whole construction and rural housing has had remarkable influence. Four zones of villages in each city of province from natural establishment model point of view have been divided in three mountainous, hillside and flat zones. The results of investigations show that position and climatic geographic characteristics have a significant role in rural housing fabric and outward appearance and forming model of spaces, function of rural housing and types of construction materials of housing fabric of village which have been used with the native traditions and public recognition of material production technology and implementation of efficient models in the architecture of building housing have been continuous and sustainable. Investigation of rural housing architecture as a guide can play a role in development and improvement of rural housing in front of planners and experts. In this article, investigation of rural housing characteristics in three zones of flat, hillside and mountainous have been done and recognition and investigation of some of the housing models in each zone, the internal form and function of rural housing and the type of materials that have been used in houses. In this research, choosing some of the models with the pre-assumption that is being efficient and also possibility of copying of model along with construction and with repair and rehabilitation of housing in rural fabric provides the possibility of harmony of housing with climate for residents. The results of investigations show that situation, geographic factors and characteristics have a significant role in development of architecture models proportional to climate in each zone and rural housing outward appearance has formed proportional to them. Based on investigations that have been done in the region of study of housing units regarding to extent, form, shape and different spaces of each housing unit have been divided in three kinds of main spaces and the type of establishment and directional spaces are influenced by natural conditions that common model of space making in each of the zone in establishment of space model and choosing direction related to radiation and wind that get into shape. Also, materials and the type of construction materials that are used in housing fabric which is depending on natural environment and has a great support of native material. The role of the yard in every three zones in the organizing of spaces has been effective and common face of all the models. Also veranda in hillside and mountainous zones has a remarkable role between human and environment in outward appearance and fabric of some villages in aesthetics point of view and also in climatic has been significant. Some of the important materials that are used in housing are sun-dried brick, stone, brick and wood that have direct relation with regional native and geographic conditions. The other important point in rural architecture is the good interaction and the housing and influence of native and cultural characteristics of builders of buildings that shows their role in simplicity and clearness of spaces also the possibility of alternation and floating of activity in spaces and models could be seen. Product of this approach produces native architecture and harmony with climate that should be seen between human and nature and also can be found identicalness with architecture.