1استادیار ، گروه معماری ، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ، تهران، ایران. -نویسنده مسؤول
2دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، ایران
تفسیر پدیدارشناسانه از خانه یکی از مهمترین رویکردهای کیفی در این حوزه در ادبیات نظری معماری جهان است که در مورد خانه های ایرانی کمتر مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است . در مقابل در ایران همچون بسیاری از کشورهای شرقی رویکردهای معنویت گراتری مثل نگرش سنت گرایان معنوی بیشتر مورد توجه قرار دارد . پژوهش حاضر در پی بررسی این مسئله است که معیارهای کدام یک از دو دیدگاه پدیدارشناسی و سنت گرایی معنوی با مفاهیم خانه سنتی ایرانی بیشتر همخوانی را دارد. و چگونه با استفاده از هردو نظر به عنوان نگرش های مکمل می توان به ابعاد کشف نشده ای از خانه ایرانی دست یافت . هدف از طرح این مسئله کشف معنا و مفهوم درست زندگی در خانه های سنتی به صورت تحلیلی و مبنایی به منظور اصاح روند ساخت خانه های قوطی وار و بی روح امروز است. از آنجا که مبانی این دو رویکرد شرقی و غربی که امروزه توسط طراحان ایرانی مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند تفاوتهایی دارند لازم است با بررسی عالمانه شباهت ها و تفاوت های این دو نگرش مطالعه گردد. این پژوهش ابتدا مفاهیم خانه را از منظر سنت گرایان معنوی و پدیدارشناسان معرفی می کند و سپس به بررسی کالبدی خانه های سنتی ایرانی با این دو نگاه می پردازد و در نهایت با مقایسه این دو رویکرد نظام چند لایه ای از ارزشهای خانه های سنتی ایرانی دست پیدا می کند. همچنین مبانی و شاخصه های ناهماهنگ با خانه ایرانی نیز معرفی می گردد . این تحقیق نشان می دهد که خانه های ایرانی سنتی از جنبه های مختلف پاسخگو هستند و تحلیل آنها با رویکردهای مختلف می تواند دریچه هایی نو از این هنر ارزشمند را در اختیار ما قرار دهد. برای مثال می توان به جوابگویی خانه سنتی ایرانی به ابعاد روان شناختی، وجودی و طبیعت گرا در نگرش پدیدارشناسانه و ابعاد ملکوتی، شهودی و معنوی در نگرش سنت گرایی معنوی اشاره کرد.
I ranian traditional houses from the perspective of phenomenologists and moral traditionalists
Home is the space which man lives in. The man along with families will find comfort and belonging in their home. Houses are important in shaping human character and behavior, therefore It is necessary to deal with it, especially in today›s time. Home is the place where people need to spend a lot of time in it. They do their own work in it, spend time with their family and give meaning to it by living there, home and humans give two sided meaning. The Issue that home is a meaningful place and nowadays by reducing qualities, it›s means has been greatly faded and homes sometimes are as diminished as a shelter, is the fact that is common in the two perspectives of «phenomenology» and « sacred traditionalism». The point is how the values of home are defined in these two views. Each of these approaches provide a definition of houses which are similar to traditional home. Investigating the similarities is done in conclusion of the study. In fact the question is that which one of the dimensions of the Iranian traditional house are understandable in structure of the two sacred traditionalism and phenomenological approaches, and what are the commonalities and differences between the two approaches in Iranian traditional house. Analysis of Iranian traditional home with this two approaches, is important because both approaches have differences and strengths which can help us in deep and deeper understanding. Nowadays phenomenology is one of the most important approaches of Western which has done many studies to understand the quality of home and its concepts, and it also emphasizes the historical dimension of homes and old houses. Therefore it is one of the most appropriate approaches to recognition of traditional eastern homes, and nowadays its promoting by many theorists in this communities. On the other hand sacred traditionalism approach has an important insights in East, which are supported by religion and eastern view, and offers specific approach in defining architecture and therefore its appropriate for Better understanding of the Iranian traditional homes. The phenomenological interpretation of home is one of the most important qualitative approaches in this area on the world architecture theoretical literature. That little has been done about Iranian homes. Versus in Iran, as in many countries of Eastern spiritually oriented approaches such moral traditionalism are considered more. This study sought to examine that criteria of which of the two views of phenomenology and moral traditionalism is more consistent with the concept of traditional Iranian home And how to use both as complementary approaches can demonstrate unexplored dimensions of Iranian home. The purpose of designing this issue is discovering the meaning of true living in traditional houses as a basis for analyzing in order to correct the process of building box-like and lifeless houses nowadays. Since the Basics of this two Eastern and Western approaches which have been considered by Iranian designers nowadays have differences Scholarly study of the similarities and differences between the two approaches is needed. This study at first defines the Home concepts in terms of moral traditionalists and phenomenologists. Sacred traditionalists are in blive that home is the place in which with declining daily concern man can find a relaxation to think about itself and his God. A peace for growth and development of the member of family and Achieve a feeling of relaxation. To understand the qualities of a home in this view, it is essential to understand the basics of traditional Islamic architecture. Nader Ardalan and Laleh Bakhtiar (1999) introduce the essential elements of traditional Islamic architecture as the key of understanding these principles, which include: Orientation of the space, qualitative Polarization and the relationship between space and symbolic forms . these qualities will be enhanced by perceptional playing in the form of light, geometry and weight. These three elements are the main elements of Islamic architecture introduced by Burckhardt (Sartipipour, 2008). Phenomenologists (Bachelard, 1994) defines the house as a collection of imaginations that provides reasons or delusions of stability. Phenomenologists deem artistic works as the representation of life condition and the architecture as the tangible realization of existential space (Shultz, 1980). Bachelard explores residency in imagination and dreams; accordingly the house is regarded as the inner sanctum (Bachelard.1994). It detaches the type of memories occurred in the house from those be fallen in the world outside in a way that the memories pertaining to the house augment the treasury of our dreams. He introduces the house space as a poetic and romantic space in which understanding of its poetic depth is feasible via the brilliant evocation through poems rather than memories.The concept of «past» is highlighted in the interpretation of the house propounded by Heidegger (2009, p.34); he asserts «like a strayed ship, house is an outstanding piece of the past». The character of houses, are replete with life, peace, and comfort owing to their centralism and introspection as well as to the presence of Nature (yard) in their center. Walls and borders with their unique quality and plentiful penumbra are integral portion of the house and various open spaces in the walls of the rooms impart miscellaneous qualities of the dialectical relationship between Nature and rooms. Due to the spaces with diverse qualities and special manifestation of lights and colors, the rooms are crammed full of fantasy and memorable moments. Secondly the study evaluate the physical of traditional Iranian home with this both approaches. Traditionalists interpret home with symbols such as light, colors and mirrors. According to this Approach, Iranian House has formed from the «yard»,» balcony» and «rooms» which respectively represent the «spirit» and «soul» and «body». In phenomenology approache, Iranian houses are generally center-oriented and the center is nature. Border have defined courtyard and the rooms with diverse qualities. Different openings in wall of the porch and rooms are maked diverse qualities of the dialectic between courtyard and rooms. The character of Iranian home is full of peace and life because of the nature, and full of fancy and memory because of spaces with different qualities, and the special light and color in a room. Finally, by comparing these two approaches a multi-layered system of values in Iranian traditional houses will find. The Uncoordinated principles and features of an Iranian home are also introduced. This study shows that traditional Persian houses are accountable in various aspects and their analysis in different approaches can provide us new valves of this valuable art. For example Iranian traditional houses can response psychological, existential and nature-oriented dimensions of phenomenological approach and heavenly, spiritual and intuition dimensions of traditionalism. The research also shows that Iranian traditional houses has reached to a level of art and truth that can appear different levels of meaning. The spaces of such house, in addition to responding to the daily needs, connect the human life to memories and dreams and is Responsive to different mental needs. Iranian traditional home takes his identity from human and gives identity to him and by engaging the five senses of human beings, helps to connotation understanding of the house.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Phenomenology, moral traditionalism, Iranian traditional houses
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