1پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
2دانشیار، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران- نویسنده مسؤول
3استاد، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، تهران، ایران
عقل و تعقل، مفاهیمی هستند که همواره، از سوی فلاسفه و متفکران ، در ظرف جهان بین یهای مختلف و به تناسب تعریف از انسان و تمایز وی از سایر موجودات «حیوان»، به صورت غایتمند مورد تأمل قرارگرفته اند. «تفکرِ تعقلیِ شیعی» به عنوان عنصری متمایزکننده از سایر اندیشه های اسامی، آثار فلاسفه شیعه را تحت تأثیر قرار داده و باعث به وجو دآمدن، تعاریفی از عوالم عقلی و نیز تجلی آن در عالم جسمانی یا محسوسات گشته است. در این میان، هنر و آثار انسان ساخت به واسطه متجلی نمودنِ انوارِعالمِ عقلی در عالم محسوسات، سیر در قوس نزولی «سیر من ا...» ، و نیز فراه مآوردن زمین ههای سیر نف سانسانی در قوس صعودی«سیر الی ا...» همواره مورد توجه بسیاری از متفکران بود هاست. در دوره صفوی ب هزعم زمین هسازی حضور تفکر شیعی، موجبات تجلی کالبدی این اندیشه در معمار ی منظر را شاهد هستیم، که با دار ابودن مفاهیم غنی، بالقوه و نیز متأثر از دیدگاه های فلسفی این دوران، توانسته است، عنصر ماندگاری را در خود تقویت کرده و به بالا بردن ادراک عقلانی منجر شود. مقاله حاضر سع ی دارد تا با اتکا به قرآن، احادیث و اندیش ههای ملاصدرا ، معمار ی منظ ر دور ه صفوی شهراصفهان را در حیطه تفکر تعقل شیعی مورد بررسی قرار داده و شاخص ها و تجلیات کالبدی آ نرا به موجب ادراک تعقلی انسان، آشکار نماید. این پژوهش با بهره گیری از مطالعات کتابخان های ، غور در مباحث فلسفی و دینی ، به دنبال ارائه ی تأویلی ب رگرفته از تفکر تعقلی شیعی در منظر دوره صفوی است. یافت ههای این پژوهش نشان م یدهند که معماری منظ رایرانی، و ب هطور شاخص باغ ایرانی، که دارای الگوی شناخت هشده و ماندگار با پیشینه تاریخی سده های مختلف است ؛ در این دوره با بهره گیری از مفاهیم برخاسته از این تفکر، به مفاهیمی چون عالم مثال، عدالت و قدر بیشتر پرداخته است.
Spatial continuity in contemporary Iranian architecture
Will you not then think? (Al-A›raf/ 169), Almighty God has invited the man to think and reason out anywhere of Qur›an. Intellect and reasoning are concepts that always have been reflected purposively, by philosophers and thinkers, in a different world view and to fit within the definition of man and his distinction from other creatures (animals). For in Shi›ism as a result of the impact of these substantive issues, it became distinguishing school from other schools of thought.» Shia Intellectual Thought» is as a distinctive element of other Islamic thought, affects Shia philosophers, result the definitions of intellectual worlds, and has been manifested in the physical or tangible world. In the meantime, manifests and arts of man-made due to manifesting glories of intellectual world in the world of the senses, the downward trend (trend from God), as well as preparing the ground for development of the human soul in the arc of ascent (trend to God) was considered by many thinkers. So the study, assuming that the art of landscape architecture of the Safavid period, with an emphasis on Shi›ism and thought of philosophers such as MullaSadra as Shiite thinkers could qualify as lasting in the minds of Iranian- Islamic national identity, survey the idea that the rational is this thought. This article attempts to answer this question that components and dimensions of the field of rational thinking and the how Safavid Shi›a architecture are reflected in landscape architecture? This article by considering the implications of appearance and reality, truth and the world of justice, magnitude and geometry as influential concepts in Islamic thought and Shia, is trying to find the relationship between these concepts in landscape architecture of the Safavid period. As the studies show that the Islamic world view has considered for anything outward and inner meaning, as know the birthplace of this world and introduce their meaning in the worlds of meaning and understanding of the essence of the person, even though at the levels of perception. If, as in all affairs are the internal and external traits, man also has the rational soul, not isolated and has both of these attributes. It can be concluded that the effect of landscape architecture and generally any man-made will stay good and durability that is capable of understanding it for appearance and reality. It looks trend or pass from appearance to reality of the body of architecture; means that the matter at the possession of architect became a material distances of its physical mode and closes up to its inner mode. Therefore, the requisite of this trend in the face of material is that to make their essential physical aspects hidden and this could be done by smoothing the levels, generally transparent and delicate, ”removing featuring physical adjectives». Artist man by using the capabilities and capacities of its existence (appearance) and also by resorting to inside can after ascending trend in the world receive intellectual intuition, with the creation of the signs of the world’s top witness in the world (by art and architecture here), be the underlying growth of origin, intellectual and other creatures is to receive the vision. And in these ways need to be able to exhibit these meanings in it. Of the other reviewed concepts in this article can be referred to the concept of justice; Islamic philosophers, hold noumenal true for justice, so that the stability of the world as it is and whatever it outside is doomed to fall and straying and it mediates communication with the realm of the sensible world knows and expresses the position of each object in its place. Islamic thinkers have been written books and numerous articles on this subject and many fields have expressed to justice but here it is enough to pay attention to only the meanings of justice and equity that the purpose of the article and indicate its relationship to the words, and its relation to the brains. With regard to the characteristics and meanings of the word of righteousness and justice, we can fit the words, the balance (for stability), survival, intermediate between the sensible and intelligible world in a set. On the other hand some of these words could have physical meanings, in space design and landscape architecture influence as a result of the intelligible world and the world of the senses are the belts and this is exactly (= proportion, balance and fit everything in its place) is what itcan be used as one of the physical dimensions of rational named one hand, the importance of the sense in Shi›ism (If you are a member of the Shiite religious principles) is next marker of Shiite rational thinking. Designing landscape architecture by worldview of Islamic thinkers and philosophers of Islam, to become inner meanings and the meanings supernatural world of the senses, and to reach outward to the inward journey and vice versa and also a manifestation of the concept of justice requires a tool by which a body of material life, and the divine spirit in which brightens up this way, architecture is a platform for the emergence of rational universe works, and flowering of reason and intellection of its audience, to feed in much higher existence. Organize the space through architecture and landscape architecture, with the aim of reason (and connect with the divine) requires a quality space that is associated. In this regard, according to the divine attribute such a geometry that semantic connection between the sensible and intelligible world is established, the words of the Quran and hadith assistance is intended, and the word ”Magnitude» according to the research conducted and appropriate interpretations of this theme. If more researchers, the geometry of Islamic science in the Quran is so closely linked to the concept and it recreated some sort of divine destiny and determine architectural and geometric forms of art introduced. The relationship between the magnitude and the world, for example, that the importance of the traditions of Islamic art on the principles verify. And in a sense, geometry noted the creation of permanent freezing of the sensible world to the world of the intellectual world that exists and is a language of reason. According to pave the presence of Shi›ism in the Safavid period, causing physical manifestation we see these concepts in landscape architecture, which have a rich concepts, as well as the potential impact of philosophical views during this period, have managed, lasting element in strengthening and lead to enhancing the rational perceptions . This paper tries to rely on the Qur›an, the traditions and ideas of Mulla Sadra, examined landscape architecture of Shiite Safavid of Isfahan within the realm of thinking, reasoning and criteria and physical manifestations of it under rational human perception. This research by using library studies, delving into the philosophical and religious studies, seeking to provide interpretation based on rational thinking in terms of Shia Safavid period. Findings show that the Iranian landscape architecture, especially Iran garden, which has well-known and long-lasting historical background, is a pattern for different centuries; during this period, by using the concepts emerging from this thinking, to concepts like world of justice and much greater.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
intellectual realm, Shia art, intellectual thought, geometry, landscape architecture of Safavid Era
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