1دانشیارگروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی ، تهران، ایران
2کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی معماری، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران - نویسنده مسئول
امروزه بحث پیرامون بازشناسی هویت ایرانی اسامی در معماری معاصر کشور در سطح وسیعی گسترش یافته است. موضوع مسکن بزرگ ترین سهم را در این امر داراست که به نحوی تمام اقشار جامعه با آن در ارتباط اند. احداث یک خانه پدیده ای فرهنگی محسوب شده و شکل و سازمان فضایی آن به شدت تحت تأثیر فرهنگی است که به آن تعلق دارد. بی توجهی یا عدم توجه کافی مسکن با رویکرد ایرانی- اسامی باعث شده که ارز شها و سنَت های قدیمی در کالبد و سیمای مسکن زیر پا گذاشته شود، و مردم نیز از حسنات و ارزش های آن بی بهره بمانند. هدف مقاله آ گاهی به اصول معماری مسکن ایرانی در گذشته و حال شروع می گردد و در ادامه اصول معماری مسکن ایرانی با اصول اجتماعی اسام تطبیق داده می شود، تا مشخص شود کدام یک از اصول مسکن ایرانی با اصول اسامی هماهنگی دارد، پیش بینی م یگردد بدین ترتیب، اصولی برای مسکن ایرانی معاصر براساس احکام اسام استخراج گردد. این پژوهش به روش توصیفی پیمایشی و با هدف شناخت ضرور تها و نیازهای طراحی معماری ایرانی- اسامی در شرایط کنونی جامعه انجام گرفته است. جامعه آماری مربوط متخصصین و دانش آموختگان رشته معماری که از میان آن ها 150 نمونه، با روش تصادفی ساده مورد پرسش نسخه 21 روابط SPSS گری قرار گرفته اند. پس از جمع آوری اطلاعات میدانی از طریق ابزار پرسش نامه با بکارگیری نرم افزار بین متغیرهای تحقیق مورد آزمون قرار گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق نشان می دهدکه برای بازگشت به الگوی ایرانی اسامی در طراحی و اجراء مجتمع های مسکونی امروزی چهار عامل «امنیت و آسایش»، «داشتن حریم خصوصی»، «استفاده از عوامل طبیعی» و «تواضع در خانه» به عنوان شاخصه های مشترک، مسکن بر مبنای فرهنگ ایرانی- اسلامی و مسکن آپارتمانی امروز هستند.
A comparative analysis of indicators of housing on the basis of today's Persian-Islamic culture with apartment housing
Home is the first human space in which to experience the sense of space. Building a house is a cultural phenomenon, and the shape and spatial organization is strongly influenced by culture which it belongs. Neglect or lack of adequate housing with the Islamic Iranian approach that values and traditions in the face of the housing body and trampled, and people benefit from good deeds and keep its value. Concerns related to the past and failure in creating an architecture that can properly continue the development of history and architectural values and have a share in the world›s contemporary architecture And to contribute to the objectives and components of fundamental Islamic Iranian traditional architecture, Based on these concepts and applying them in a new frame necessitates the attention to today›s architecture. Home environment as an important part of community life and its cultural manifestations, from the perspective of doctor pirnia: «Home is where the residents are feeling upset and inside the house where women and children lived, should have a large variety to Do not feel fatigue . The most striking features that can be named to the Big House: - The co-existence of three types of open, semi-open and closed. - There are specific installation in any building space for the three species. - There are various whole space of the private sphere to the public at home. - The possibility of the private lives of families in all three types of space. - Flexible space to a dynamic lifestyle and behavior of human cases. Entrance, the spatial index and the adequacy of possible pause. The most familiar symbol of the entrance to the house was home, but semi-private spaces that the privacy of the home and the neighbors began to get to the entrance. Iranian house in terms of spatial variation was too high and it was seen in very diverse areas. Home is the most important criterion to evaluate the city›s physical shape and obviously no house loses everything in their meaning.and functions to consider and simply removed from the location of other city can say to set it. It is stated that the concept of home: the house is the birthplace of the hierarchy of the various functions of living need to live in a house for us is always there in tablet or elsewhere, says is settled to be space in which the concept the home of it. Home is not only asylum Drhfaz days and nights we could have it your closet because of our past, we have repeatedly opened and closed. Islamic civilization trait of the house in operation, according to the houses are situated, stillness and peace: and Allah Jllkm I settled Byvtkm (Nahl verse 80) God gave you a comfort for your home. Name the location of this attribute (inertia), ie housing on the property of the family life implies, many times in the Qur›an and the fact that houses are a symbol and a source of comfort, the architects have employed a variety of measures.The houses spatial organization closely associated with the way people and a variety of intermediate spaces simultaneously separating and connecting the spaces are. Another feature of Iranian house Fzahast ability to use the constituent elements of this empowerment happens space. In today›s society, the houses are made from the perspective and quantitative methods and qualitative aspects have not paid much attention to the people in their home environment and not recognized and Iranian calm and quiet the house is expected to, housing today is not responsive to their needs. Lack of quality in housing would undermine the sanctity of the family, adverse effects on children and families belonging to the house eliminates. The assumptions considered in this study include: 1.satisfied residents living in Islamic housing and the connections between people are as meaningful and positive. 2. components of security and comfort, privacy, use of natural factors and humility and authenticity in apartment house in improving the quality of housing today with Islamic Iran Quality importance and necessity of this research is effective, all of us are Muslims and in the community Muslim lives-wemust use the housing Iranians have which features a housing in which to achieve peace. This study, by recognizing the sensitivity and importance of housing and desirable identity, necessity, and research in this field, both in Islam and in the field of architecture and urban planning principles and principles of Islam, according to the needs and circumstances of the present essential-knows. Because the influence of Islamic values living spaces in all, a very useful and positive. The selection of this project is trying to respond to one of the country›s current problems is the lack of implementation of housing today with Iranian-Islamic criteria.It is expected, based on the principles for housing contemporary Iranian Islamic law can be extracted. The opposite can be done.presented. These principles, how Muslims live and how their relationship with the community and the surrounding area offer. According to Iran›s Culture and Islamic architecture, houses should be built in such a way that these principles into consideration and, therefore, designers should use these principles as policy design. In other words, houses an Iranian Muslim and Islamic beliefs and the result of Iranian cultural values consistent with it. The research method is a descriptive survey to determine the needs and requirements of the current situation of Iranian-Islamic architectural design has been done we do. And by distributing questionnaires among the professionals and graduates heading architecture. Qualitative research method in this study is an analysis and survey. The population in this research professionals and students of architecture in the University (martyr Rajaee Teacher Training, Tehran University of Qom, Mashhad Ferdowsi) is. Sampling randomly from among graduates and professionals with a sample size of 150 is architecture and accuracy the number of samples were confirmed using Cronbach and the size is perfect to fill the questionnaire. Current research tool in the study of the documents, the most important library resources such as books, magazines, study of written documents, regulations and is planning projects. In addition, the study of different means and methods of data collection used questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaire consisted of three questions open and 41 closed questions is the main aim of the Islamic-Iranian architecture of the residential variable and discover how accurate their priorities from the perspective of university professors, experts in the field of architecture. After collecting data from sample results for the descriptive analysis in the form of charts and tables, etc. show and then using statistical analysis using software SPSS21 to a series of appropriate information to It was designed to help. The results show that to return to the Iranian- Islamic architecture pattern, in the design and implementation of modern residential complexes, four factors «comfort and safety», «privacy», «natural agents» and «humility in the house» are as shared characteristics, factors on the basis of today›s Iranian Islamic culture and apartment housing.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Housing, home of Iranian index, housing traditional, architecture of Islamic
1- Molaei, Salahoddin and Sara Soleimani( 2011). Oraman: A Part of Islamic Architecture and Urban Development of Iran, First National Conference on Islamic Architecture and Urban Development. 2-Mahdavinejad, Mohammadjavad (2004). Wisdom of Islamic Architecture: Recognition of Iranian Islamic Architecture Principles, HONAR-HA-YE-ZIIBA , (66 -57 )19. 3-Mahdavinejad, Mohammadjavad (2003). Strategic Planning of Urban Development, Tehran: City Building and Architecture vice Presidency of the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development. 4-Memarian, GH (2005). Siri on the theoretical foundations of architecture, Tehran: Soroush knowledge. 5-Hashemi, R., (1996). the house and the architecture of the village, 10( 23), pp. 3-2. 6- The Holy Quran, Nahl, 80. 7-Masaeli, Sedighe(2009). Plan as of Religious Beliefs in traditional housing deserts in Iran, Tehran: Journal of Fine Arts; (37). Page 38 - 27. 8-Moore, Charles, Gerald Allen and Donlyn Lyndon; (1974). The place of Houses(New York: Holt), Rinehart and Winston. 9-Rapoport,A (1969). House form and culture, Englewood Cliffs, NJ:prentice. 10-Alexander, Christopher, in (2002). the architecture and the secret of immortality, a timeless building Translation: M. Ghaiyoomi Bidhendi, Tehran: the martyr Beheshti University. 11- Cooper, Claire(2000). house as their institutional, philosophical and psychological books perception of space; translation: A. Lord Jlfayy, of publishing the soil. 12- The Holy Quran, Araf, 74. 13- Pirnia, Mohammad Karim(2008). Iranian architecture, Tehran: Soroush knowledge publishing, printing. 14-Tabibian, M. and Chrbgv, Nasiba, Abdullahi mehr, Ensieh(2011). reflecting the Islamic Iranian, hierarchy in the Journal utopia. No. 7, pp. 63- 76. 15-Naiery Fallah, Siamak and Khalili, Mohammad, Taj al-Din ibn Muhammad cold, M., (2014). layers of privacy in traditional houses Iran, a symbol of religious pattern in family life; International Congress on Culture and religion; Qom. 16-Ekhvat, Hania, and Bemanian Mohammadreza (2010). Traditional Architecture and Urbanism in Islamic countries, Tehran Publication Helle.17- The Holy Quran, Noor, 28&27. 18-Seifian, Mohammad Kazem and Mohammad Reza Mohamoudi(2007). Privacy in Iranian Traditional Architecture, Tehran: City Identity. 1(1). 19-Mohebi, Marzieh, and khodashenas, Ali (2013). Input design solutions for residential buildings Masrba principle at the Iranian hierarchy, Second National Conference on Islamic Architecture & Urban Planning. 20-Ghezelbash, MR, and Abvlzya’, Farhad(1986). Alfaby traditional house in Yazd body. 21- Rezaimanesh, Ali and Loreki, Ibrahim and Mohammad Zadeh, Meysam(2012). the concept of good home (with a view of the Persian architecture and Islamic culture), Congress of Iranian-Islamic architecture and urbanism; Mashhad: Institute of Education Ali grave; 19 Avalanche 22-Farabi, abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad( 1975). Thoughts of People from Utopia, Tr. Seyed Jafar Sajjadi. Tehran: Iranian High Council for Culture and Art. 23-Naghizade, Mohammad(2006). A consideration of the transformation in the field of Iranian cities, HONAR HA-YE-ZIBA, (,)25 24 -15. 24-Hakim, Negar, (2002). Iran’s development of housing architecture in the early decades of the century, Tehran: Architect magazine; 3( 17). 25-Falah Manshadi, Elham(2011). Muslim city to look for housing in Nahj, Tehran: Islamic Architecture and Urbanism Conference. 26-The Holy Quaran, Shoarae, 129&128.