1استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران-نویسنده مسئول
2پژوهشگر دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
3استادیار گروه معماری، آموزشکده فنی و حرفه ای سما، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد کرج، کرج، ایران
در طی قرون متمادی شهرها همیشه جوامع بشری را در راستای دستیابی به اهداف خود به خدمت گرفته اند. البته باید این نکته را مدنظر قرار داد که شهرها، بر خاف ابزارها و ماشین هایی که بر مبنای طراحی های دقیق شکل گرفته اند، ابزارهای جمعی هستند که ظهور آنها، مبتنی بر برنامه ریزی های دقیق نبوده و بسیاری از ویژگی های آنان به سادگی و به خودی خود متجلی شده است . بنابراین دیگر برنامه ریزی و مدیریت شهرها به شکل فعلی آن ، نمی توانند پاسخگوی این پیچیدگی ها باشد، لذا مدیریت منسجم این عدم قطعیت ها؛ مستلزم برنامه ریزی برای ایجاد شهرها و جوامع هوشمند بوده و شا کله این شهرها می بایست بر مبنای ایجاد محیط هایی با هدف بهبود مهارت های شناختی و توانایی یادگیری و نوآوری پایه گذاری گردند. این امر، نیازمند ایجاد فضاهای دیجیتالی، سازمانی و فیزیکی بوده که از طریق ابداع و خلاقیت مبتنی بر ترکیبی از مهارت های شناختی فردی و سیستم های اطلاعاتی سازماندهی می شوند. این مقاله به دنبال آن است تا ابعاد مختلف هوش شهری و مؤلفه های کلیدی شهر هوشمند را برپایه یک مدل مفهومی انسجام یافته تبیین نماید، روش این پژوهش توصیفی بوده و برپایه جمع آوری اطلاعات اسنادی و متون مرتبط با این حوزه تدوین شده است؛ در همین راستا، در گام نخست شهر هوشمند و مفاهیم مرتبط با آن ارائه شده، در گام بعد، مؤلفه های کلیدی شهر هوشمند برپایه جمع بندی دیدگاه های صاحب نظران این عرصه؛ در قالب مؤلفه ها و عوامل پایه ای هوشمندسازی شهرها در سه دسته مؤلفه ها ی کلیدی)مردم، عوامل نهادی و زیرساختی(دسته بندی شده و سه عامل مهم)هوش،یکپارچگی و نوآوری( به عنوان پیش شرط های اساسی جهت ایجاد جوامع هوشمند در نظر گرفته شده اند که مجموعه این عوامل و پیش شرط ها در قالب یک مدل به تصویر کشیده شده است و نهایتاً در گام پایانی پژوهش ، چگونگی هوشمندسازی شهرها بر مبنای ابعاد و مؤلفه های مدل تدوین شده، تشریح می گردد.
Explaining and analyzing how to make smart cities in the context of the influencing components and key factors
Over the centuries, cities have always employed human societies to achieve their goals; to be more precise, they are part of the infrastructure and tools that are made by human to deal with nature threats and of life management within communities. Of course, it should be considered that cities, as opposed to tools and machines that formed based on the presiced design, are the means which their emergence are not based on detailed planning and a lot of their features simply and arbitrarily have manifested. The increasing growth of technologies are as emerging phenomenon in cities that follow a future of uncertainty in societies. Political, economic and social factors that are shaping urban applications will be beyond the grasp and control, and will be associated with a set of unknowns and the uncertainties. So the planning and management of cities in its current form, can not respond to this complexity. Integrated management of this uncertainty, requires planning to make smart cities and communities and configuration of these cities should be based on the creation of environments aimed at improving cognitive skills and learning abilities and innovation. This necessitates the creation of digital, physical and organizational spaces that are organized via innovation and creativity through a combination of individual cognitive skills and information systems. Smart cities are emerging around the world, but still deep differences can be seen with amazing smart environments that open minds and transmit skills and the abilities from the base. Integrated studies in this area can be somewhat overcome the raised shortcomings. Therefore, this article seeks to explore various aspects of urban intelligence and key components of smart city based on an integrated conceptual model. Method of this research is descriptive and based on gathering documents related to this field. In the first step smart city and its related concepts are presented, in the next step, key factors of smart city based on summing up the views of experts in the field are revealed; catagorized in the framwork of basic smart city factors and componenets (public, institutional factors and infrastructure). Three important factors (intelligence, integrity and innovation) considered as essential requirements for the creation of smart communities that the combination of these factors and preconditions depicted in the form of a model. Ultimately in the final stage of research, how to smart cities explained based on the dimensions and components of the considered model. One hundred years ago, only about one out of every seven people lived in the city. Today, half of the population live in cities and the percentage of that is growing steadily each year. Because more people migrate to the big cities, town’s credit, technology, trade, formation of governments, resource consumption, quality of life, and many other things considerably grows. Personal talent or professional opportunities of people, creativity, economic exploitation and accumulation of large numbers of people can have a positive impact on society. Of course, the big urban communities are always big risks for Earth in the form of overcrowding, excessive carbon emissions and waste and high levels of non-renewable energy consumption, so cities - municipal governments, along with businesses and city dwellers that launch the economic growth have a major responsibility for the effective monitoring of people and the environment. The need to manage resources in terms of sustainability associated with a more important purpose: to create an attractive social and economic environment in which citizens, companies and governments can work and live interactively. In fact, The Cities compete more for their citizens and investments than the merchants for their customers. The issue that is subsequently increased its importance; the overall attractiveness of a particular city, is the experience that the city provide to its citizens and businesses and it becomes manifested in a wide rangeof important features: Value and sustainability of the city government, the economy and employment opportunities, its schools, the quality of the physical environments, culture and artistic resources, higher educational institutions and other educational opportunities for adults, housing, security, social participation, freedom and its variations. Smart cities and towns have been created via the connection of innovation and digital cities and with the aim of promoting knowledge and innovation. This connection is based on two objective criteria: (1) innovation and digital cities are both community-based processes, and (2) innovation and digital cities are both knowledge-based processes. «Connection» is on the basis of shared knowledge networks and online provision of knowledge and innovation processes. Intelligent Community Indicators depict a global framework for understanding the different communities and regions that can create a competitive advantage in today›s economy. Indicators show that an intelligent city has a more life span than a traditional form: •Significant deployment of broadband communications and government facilities; government that has a role of catalyst via provision of regulations and incentives •Education; training and workforce development to create a workforce, capable of implementing knowledge effectively. •Government programs and private sectors that promote digital democracy, benefit from all sectors of society, including the expansion of citizen participation in government and their decision-making. •Innovation in the public and private sectors, including e-government initiatives and efforts to create economic and business development to finance new job opportunities; Effective marketing as a lever for economic development, attract workforce and other community assets to new employers. •Smart cities, lifeless spaces, complex structures, physical infrastructures, and electronics applicable programs are not digital, In contrast, they are such living communities that use from skills of individuals and institutions for collective learning and innovation, and use from physical and digital infrastructure to communicate and online collaboration. This research is based on descriptive approaches, for which our goals were to collect data on surviving geometrical patterns and classify them on the basis of time scale and regionalism. Such approaches provide dialectic answers to a wide range of philosophical and architectural questions, such as when or where a particular pattern was extensively used. Smart City, due to the outstanding characteristics of sustainability and attraction, is divided from other cities. Environmental projects are flowed with more than a moral obligation. Sustainability is important for its positive Social consequences and the main factor is creation of habitable environment by the health and welfare of citizens and their businesses. Today, there is no smart city. However, one of the most common ways to get started is creation of a starting point that is based on the geographic, political, economic of the city, then, that city can determine different states based on the costs and effects of different projects and their anticipated transactions, and begin to design various forms of technology, strategy, processes, training, supervision and management of a developed program. With regard to the impact of the cities on the health of the planet, the agenda of smart city, regardless of where they live, is important for all citizens. If cities are focused on affordable measures to embed intelligence in their services, they have to carry out fundamental right activities, Open and intelligent architecture that is enabled of delivering smart services now and in the future due to the growing needs of a city.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Smart City, institutional and infrastructural factors, urban intelligence, integrity and innovation
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