Volume 5, Issue 1 (2015)                   Naqshejahan 2015, 5(1): 59-74 | Back to browse issues page

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Abstract:   (11599 Views)
Architecture and urban development principles in different countries are formed in terms of cultural, religious and historical properties of the societies. Norms and standards that govern the planning, conduct and relations of citizenship are based on the principles, rules and policies that are rooted in the culture of each community. Islamic society is also influenced by religion, and culture of a particular system is associated with urbanization and urban relations. Each traditional culture expresses a sacred order, which covers from residential units to living complexes and landscape and area. So, to understand the traditional living complexes, they should be seen as an expression of physical sacred spaces. In traditional cultures, order is essentially a sacred order that its goal is to give order to this chaotic world through imitation of an ideal of order and the best eternal order. There are a number of factors that have played a crucial role in their roles of Islamic cities. In addition to the natural position (topography) and physical features, Islamic city reflect economic, political, cultural and social structures of newly established community. For overcoming the confusions that we see today in our cities, conducting a profound study of the past in order to find an appropriate physical framework for construction of cities is essential and valuable provided it will be done critically and without mystification. Undoubtedly, the civilization to which can provide effective approaches for all areas of human excellence, should have significant ideas for the most important areas of material and spiritual life of man. Urban development in Islamic culture and civilization, in addition to its valuable technical and artistic aspects, will explain a lot of hidden aspects of civilization. Islamic city can be simply adapted to modern living standards and functionality and can preserve its compatibility with cultural, social, religious, and natural environment. In order to answer the question that what are the principles and rules of Islamic cities and the consequences of each of them, descriptive and exploratory (intuitional) method has been employed. After brief description of Islamic principles, philosophical interpretations, ideology and viewpoint of Islam towards urban issues we will find out that the research method is descriptive and exploratory (intuitional). This study tries to point to some of these principles in order to explain some of the documentation and analysis and applies these principles referring to the Islamic utopia. Islamic city became a subject of serious studies and was examined for the first time in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Plato was the first thinker who thought of utopia based on rational arguments. He designed the ideal society in the Republic and claims that human society will prosper when it is governed by philosopher-king. After Plato, Aristotle completed the project and added some parts to it. In the Islamic period, Abu Nasr Farabi publishes thought of the ideal city in a book named “the Ideas of Utopian People”. Farabi believes that goal and end of utopia is to achieve happiness. Happiness is absolute goodness and goodness in turn is something that is useful in one way or another to achieve happiness. The discussed Islamic principles are mostly related to purposeful human life (the targeted life), considering revelation regarding anthropology (the principle of human dignity), with an emphasis on the needs of good and worthy of life (the principles of justice, prosperity and security). The basic principles of citizenship and urban development in Islamic thought include: the principle of targeted life, the principle of human dignity, welfare, safety, the submissiveness of Muslims, the principle of lack of corruption, lack of hardship, the urgency and the principle of binding agreements and treaties. Divine utopia is the manifestation of the absolute God, becomes an expression of human, nature, city, word and text. The idea of Iranian utopia starts with the rise of Iranian civilization and identity and with emphasizing on the element of central power. What is obvious nowadays is the pragmatism which is the basis for organizing the city and specifically can be understood in Tehran in recent decades. The process of transformation of the current Iranian civil society is going to revise itself epistemologically. Here, the theory of endogenous development can be based on the three identities, i.e. Iranian, Islamic and modern. In this respect, especially in relation to the theological foundation of the system and for the continuation of the revival of religious thought with the future management approach, shows the epistemological origins of the Islamic Republic of Iran in “religious jurisprudence in religion”. Epistemological foundation is determined particularly in the field of religion and thoughtof the rise of the Islamic Republic, and religious the idea of development in the context of religious jurisprudence can be the base of indigenous, knowledge-based development discourse. The idea of research and development can be seen in this system of thought. “Self School” is the anthropological foundation of the idea of divine utopia. In heavenly utopia, human is himself. Man in town is himself. Urban spaces are the expression of human himself. Human scale fades, in the material and numerical sense, when human being travel forms the earth to heaven and vice versa. What is proposed is a space that can express this movement, and geometric center fades in face of ideal centrality. So, mosque is located in the center of city so that human can always re-interpret himself during prayer. Finally, we suggest that creativity is the product of genius, and genius is a way which uses the components of human existence. It makes peaceful life and optimal use of divine blessing possible and creates a safe environment for excellence of human. Islam as the most complete religion pays attention to the material and social structure of the human being in all of its principles and laws. In this paper, three basic principles of citizenship and urban development system according to Islamic law have been explained, i.e. the fundamental principles, ethical principles and legal principles. Each of these principles has been set forth below in an applied manner and in accordance with the Quran and Islamic traditions.
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Received: 2015/10/13 | Accepted: 2015/03/21 | Published: 2015/10/13

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