Volume 7, Issue 2 (2017)                   Naqshejahan 2017, 7(2): 49-57 | Back to browse issues page

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1- PhD Student, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran , s_jalili@iust.ac.ir
2- Bachelor of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, West Tehran Branch
Abstract:   (11868 Views)
In recent years, following the re-introduction of the importance of public spaces and the urban life, facing has gained importance again. Some of the main goals of the facade are: beautiful appearance of buildings, saving energy in different seasons, the protection, prevent premature aging. Each building in the complex view of the city, where the streets or fields, and the effect on the walled city. Since the beginning of the 1980s, a range of materials, design and construction of buildings more efficient and more productive every day is a new innovation . Sustainable urban development does not mean the sustainable development of each of the subsystems of the economic, social, environmental or alone, and is not meant to increase the stability of these subsystems But tries to economic growth, restoration of ecologicaland balance environmental protection and social progress and the difficulties of these challenges, it has become a focus of research around the world . Therefore, sustainable development is a process that aims to create a city. It is in accordance with basic human needs in terms of performance, place the present and future generations for life. On of the factor in sustainable urban development proposed building facade materials placed on the sustainability of materials used in the facade facing particularly compatible with the environment . Sustainable design features with Three principles of strength, beauty and benefits of sustainable facade principles .the aim of valuing the three principles, the strength and resistance means at least three natural disasters and abnormal destruction ,Sustainability means the reuse of other building,Beauty and meaning consistent with the spirit of the people has been raised.But Today, most materials used in building facades, appear only at the economic objective, and made without any regard for the environment placed and There is no criteria set for facade design and materials used in accordance with the concepts of sustainable development. So The production and use of these materials in the long term lead to the end unconsciously renewable resources and pollution of the atmosphere. Given the importance of protecting the environment from harmful effects of the introduction of the concept of sustainable development should be the solution to the use of man-made materials. Since it had been less to the issue of sustainable facade materials and amount of energy used affected by building is its facade, In this article we try to learn about the formation of materials in the process of harvesting(Construction, installation, operation, maintenance), production(Extraction, processing, packaging, transportation) and installation(Recycling, reuse) of energy consumption in buildings that are in each of the steps learned.and then introduce factors are important in good quality materials, Factors such as compatible with nature, Longer Life, low energy consumption, Important characteristics of sustainable materials is:reduce energy efficiency,use of natural materials,embodied energy The embodied energy of a material refers to the total energy required to produce that material, including the collection of raw materials. This includes the energy of the fuel used to power the harvesting or mining equipment, the processing equipment, and the transportation devices that move raw material to a processing facility. This energy typically comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which are a limited, non-renewable resource. The combustion of fossil fuels also has severe environmental consequences, from localized smog to acid rain. The greater a material’s embodied energy, the greater the amount of energy required to produce it, implying more severe ecological consequences. For example, the processing of wood (harvested in a sustainable fashion) involves far less energy and releases less pollution than the processing of iron, which must be extracted from mined ores.
Reduction of Construction Waste , Local Materials , Renewable Energy Systems, Reusability, recycled content, and also the use of nano-materials thatChanges in the shape and nature, can not multifunctional and create spaces with different user. Nano-materials and nano-coatings environmental compatibility feature, the field of nano and green architecture provides link and Nano buildings need no energy because coatings and new materials also have the capability to meet the needs of energy and insulation with very low thickness and performance much more waste heat reach zero. Smart materials are materials that can function intelligently in the face of changes in the environment such as your living organisms adapt to environmental conditions The most important smart materials in the construction industry can be smart to use concrete and glass buildings noted . Taking advantage of this element can reduce the negative environmental impacts and the approach of society towards the sustainability criteria, and the study of this type of material is sustainable development. Key Building Materials and Sources are: Limestone,Steel,Aluminium,Bricks and Tile,Petrochemicals,Wood.each of Each of these materials in the trilogy should have been told, are in accordance with sustainability criteria.
For evaluating and calculate the amount of energy that affect the building facade materials, we have a special software calculates the building energy use.In this application, city, season, number of days, hours and facade material is selected, then the program will calculate the amount of energy per month pays and delivers graphically.
In this article with Ecotect software simulates a building in Tehran climate,and the different between materials facing in the amount of embody energy of building is checked and thus the sustainability and stability of each of the materials provided, as required for a sustainable facade of stable, formed. According to the results obtained in terms of sustainability , Building energy consumption, the use of concrete is 32093396(WH) during the year. Brick energy is 31954916(WH) and aluminum is 32641370(WH) According to these numbers brick is more sustainable than Concrete and then aluminum for use in the building of Tehran climate so the exchange of energy through the building facade materials smaller, so less energy is buildingin addition to energy factor in buildings. It is also assumed that the material has sufficient life and After the demolition of the building can be recycled and reused to minimize damage to the raw materials that come from nature placed.
Previous studies in the world show that many studies have been done on sustainable materials But so far, particularly on the materials used in building facades approach to sustainability and reduce energy consumption, little research has been done.The closest title of this article, by promising Navid Baheri, is the materials used in the facade of sustainable architecture ,this paper is a brief introduction and classification of material in front of them, In compliance with the standard details with regard to climate issues and energy consumption has been reduced And finally to present and examine a few examples of sustainable architecture .this title in external articles and books is in a book that explain about Criteria for resources, pollution, native products, chemical and physical characteristics of building materials and identify materials and environmental states in some articles and books the authors studied Sustainability of eco-friendly materials, embodied energy ,Toxic aspects, construction and demolition waste .but in A few of the articles studied exactly about The stability, especially with regard to embody energy building materials Building Facade.
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Article Type: Analytical Article | Subject: Highperformance Architecture
Received: 2017/07/27 | Accepted: 2017/08/23 | Published: 2017/09/6

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