Volume 12, Issue 2 (2022)                   Naqshejahan 2022, 12(2): 21-45 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Pourmohammad S, Mokhtabad Amrei S M, Habib F. Equilibrium in Plural Shape of Unique Light in Case of Sash Windows of Nasir al-Mulk Mosque. Naqshejahan. 2022; 12 (2) :21-45
URL: http://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-53311-en.html
1- PhD Graduate of Department of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor of Dramatic Arts Department, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbit Modares University, Tehran, Iran , mokhtabm@modares.ac.ir
3- Professor of Department of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (718 Views)
Aims: Colored windows are part of the architecture of traditional Iranian buildings in the Islamic period, which act as gates for the passage of single light into space and its division into different colors. The main purpose of research is to create sensitivity in design of colored glass, to express the principle of using color in colored windows of traditional and Islamic buildings, to discover the relationship between color separation and architectural space quality in sustainable lighting system. the other goal is to achieve one of the effective characteristics in creating balance in a permanent building (Nasir Al-Molk Mosque).
Methods: The type of research is qualitative-quantitative. The extraction of materials has been done by collecting information from documentary sources and field perception of the pattern and area of Nasir Al-Molk Mosque colored glass.
Finally, through the comparative analogy of the proportion of colored glass surfaces with the theoretical basis of the results have been extracted.
Findings: In the sample, five types of general coloring and 15 types of partial coloring were analyzed. Blue, turquoise, green (cold colors) and red and yellow (warm colors) are used in colored windows with balance and one in between.
Conclusion: Extraction of the ratio of cold to warm colors close to one in accordance with the principles of Islamic philosophy showed that, the pattern of color distribution in space was not random, and in this regard, there is unity.
Full-Text [PDF 1246 kb]   (367 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Pioneer Islamic Iranian Art and Architecture
Received: 2021/08/16 | Accepted: 2022/02/2 | Published: 2022/06/22

1. Fahm AO. Remaking society from within: An investigation into contemporary Islamic activism in Nigeria. Heliyon. 2020; 6(7):e04540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04540 [Article] [DOI]
2. Engy F. Architecture of mosques and Islamic centers in non-Muslim context, 2017 December 56(4); 613-620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2017.08.001 [Article] [DOI]
3. Bordbari, F., KHobbin KHoshnazar, R., Kakaie, G. Symbolism in sacred art from the perspective of traditional Islamic architecture relying on the opinions of Titus Burckhardt. Journal of Architectural Thought, 2018; 2(3): 1-14. https://at.journals.ikiu.ac.ir/article_1421.html?lang=en [Article]
4. Falakian, N., Safari, H., Kazemi, A. Morphology of Meaning-Oriented Architecture Using Space Syntax Method Case Study: Ali Mosque of Isfahan. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-e Nazar, 2021; 18(96): 29-44. doi: 10.22034/bagh.2020.231213.4551 [Article] [DOI]
5. Akbarzadeh, Z., Mohammadi, A., Gholipour Gashniani, M. The Use of Sensory Richness in Associating the Concept of Monotheism in Iranian Mosques. Journal of Architectural Thought, 2020. doi: 10.30479/at.2020.12757.1454 [Article] [DOI]
6. Matracchi P, Sadeghi habibabad A. prioritizing the effect of “Light” in the religious places and environments with an emphasis on the sense of spirituality. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 2021 Jun 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2021.05.028 [Article] [DOI]
7. Sekhavat doost N,alborzi F. Contemplation on Meaning Process of Historical Complex of Qazvin Saad-alsaltaneh and its Present Identity Reading from the View of Phenomenology. Bagh-e Nazar 2018; 15(52):29-42 .doi: 10.22034/bagh.2018.60565 [Article] [DOI]
8. Gholizadeorang F, hashempour P. Evaluation of light emission in mosque architecture Case study: central axis of Tabriz city (Golastan Garden to Abrasan crossroad). Journal of Iranian Architecture & Urbanism (JIAU), 2016;7(1). doi: 10.30475/isau.2017.62020 [Article] [DOI]
9. Shahroudi Kolour, M., Taghipour, M., Gerist, F. The Comparative Evaluation of Sense of Place Components in Structural Elements of Shiraz Traditional and Contemporary Mosques the Case Study of Haji Ali Mosque, Moshir-ol-Molk Mosque, Al-Raja Mosque and Daneshgah Mosque. Journal of Architectural Thought, 2020; 4(8): 40-54. doi: 10.30479/at.2020.10457.1165 [Article] [DOI]
10. Alborzi F, Habib F, Etessam I. An Essay on Light and its Instances in Iranian Architecture; an Approach to Meaning in Architecture. Journal of Iranian Architecture & Urbanism (JIAU), 2019 Apr 21; 10(1): 95-111. doi: 10.30475/isau.2019.87948
11. Puriyay, A., Shayestehfar, M. A General Outlook on the Basics of Coloring in Traditional Iranian Arts (with Emphasis on the 4th to 6th centuries AH). Islamic Art Studies, 2021; 17(40): -. doi: 10.22034/ias.2021.214036.1125 [Article] [DOI]
12. Stanislav Sadar J. beyond Blue: The Non-Visual Effects of Light and Color in Architecture.2015 Feb 27; 174-192. https://doi.org/10.1080/13264826.2014.967332 [Article]
13. Bemanian M, Arabalizadeh Mahabadi A, Olfat M. Analysis and Reproduction of Shades of Blue Color in the Tile Works of Shiite Mosques during the Safavid Period (Case Studies: Aligholi Agha, Jame Mosque of Isfahan, Sheikh Lotfollah, Imam and Lonban Mosques). Journal of Iranian Architecture & Urbanism (JIAU), 2017 Apr 21; 8(2): 33-47. doi: 10.30475/isau.2018.62063 [Article] [DOI]
14. Bhattacharjee PR. Discovery of total failure of the traditional laws of reflection and refraction of light to explain the phenomena of reflection and refraction. Optik. 2021 Aug 21; 240:166923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2021.166923 [Article] [DOI]
15. Akhavan, M., Bassireh, A., Sheibani, S., Motamedi, E. Physics concepts from ancient Iranian scholars' viewpoints. Iranian Journal of Engineering Education, 2015; 17(65): 35-58. doi: 10.22047/ijee.2015.8007 Babakhani R.Color and Light in Architecture and its Effects on Spirits of Space Users in a Psychological View. J Archit Eng Tech , 2017 January; 6(1); 1-6: doi: 10.4172/2168-9717.1000184 [Article] [DOI]
16. Hansen EK, Pajuste M, Xylakis E. Flow of Light: Balancing Directionality and CCT in the Office Environment. LEUKOS.2022;18(1):30-51.:doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15502724.2020.1808014 [Article] [DOI]
17. Xiao H, Cai H, Li X. Non-visual effects of indoor light environment on humans: A review✰. Physiology & Behavior. 2021;228:113195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113195 [Article] [DOI]
18. Wang Q, Xu H, Zhang F, Wang Z. Influence of color temperature on comfort and preference for LED indoor lighting. Optik. 2017;129:21-9. Doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2016.10.049.
19. Blacketer L, Lewis H, Urrutxua H. Identifying illumination conditions most suitable for attitude detection in light curves of simple geometries. Advances in Space Research. 2022;69(3):1578-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2021.11.010 [Article] [DOI]
20. Hamzenejad M, Dashti M. I ranian traditional houses from the perspective of phenomenologists and moral traditionalists. Naqshejahan. 2016; 6 (2): 24-35. http://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1395. [Article] [DOI]
21. Arbab M, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M. Comparative Study on New lighting Technologies and Buildings Plans for High-performance Architecture. Journal of Solar Energy Research. 2020 Oct 1;5(4):580-93. https://doi.org/10.22059/jser.2020.304087.1157 [Article] [DOI]
22. Bazazzadeh H, Świt-Jankowska B, Fazeli N, Nadolny A, Safar Ali Najar B, Hashemi Safaei S, Mahdavinejad M. Efficient Shading Device as an Important Part of Daylightophil Architecture; a Designerly Framework of High-Performance Architecture for an Office Building in Tehran. Energies. 2021 December 8;14(24), 8272. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248272 [Article] [DOI]
23. Ganji Kheybari A, Diba D, Mahdavinejad M, Shahcheraghi A. Algorithmic Design of Palekane in Order to Increase Efficiency of Daylighting in Buildings. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, Spring 2015;8(1):35-52. [Persian] Available from: http://www.armanshahrjournal.com/article_39305_6474c6c97b35674314f99f744a694497.pdf [Article]
24. Goharian A, Mahdavinejad M. A novel approach to multi-apertures and multi-aspects ratio light pipe. Journal of Daylighting. 2020 Sep 16;7(2):186-200. https://doi.org/10.15627/jd.2020.17 [Article] [DOI]
25. Goharian A, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Daneshjoo K. Designerly optimization of devices (as reflectors) to improve daylight and scrutiny of the light-well’s configuration. Building Simulation. 2021 Oct 9 (pp. 1-24). Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-021-0839-y [Article] [DOI]
26. Mahdavinejad M, Matoor S, Fayaz R, Bemanian M. Estimation of daylight availability and illuminance on vertical south facing surfaces in Tehran. InAdvanced Materials Research 2012 (Vol. 518, pp. 1525-1529). Trans Tech Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.518-523.1525 [Article] [DOI]
27. Pilechiha P, Mahdavinejad M, Rahimian FP, Carnemolla P, Seyedzadeh S. Multi-objective optimisation framework for designing office windows: quality of view, daylight and energy efficiency. Applied Energy. 2020 Mar 1; 261: 114356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114356 [Article] [DOI]
28. Saadatjoo P, Saligheh E. The Role of Buildings Distribution Pattern on Outdoor Airflow and Received Daylight in Residential Complexes; Case study: Residential Complexes in Tehran. Naqshejahan - Basic studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2021 Nov 10;11(3):67-92. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1400. [Article] [DOI]
29. Talaei M, Mahdavinejad M, Azari R, Prieto A, Sangin H. Multi-objective optimization of building-integrated microalgae photobioreactors for energy and daylighting performance. Journal of Building Engineering. 2021 Jun 5:102832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.102832 [Article] [DOI]
30. Yazhari Kermani A, Nasrollahi F, Mahdavinejad M. Investigation of the relationship between depth of overhang and amount of daylight indicators in office buildings of Kerman city. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 2018; 5(3): 129-36. https://doi.org/10.15171/EHEM.2018.18 [Article] [DOI]
31. Marín-Doñágueda M, Salgado-Remacha FJ, Jarabo S, Berdejo V, Tercero JL, García Fernández J, et al. Simultaneous optimization of circadian and color performance for smart lighting systems design. Energy and Buildings. 2021;252:111456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2021.111456 [Article] [DOI]
32. Elmoghazy Z, Afify H. Patterns: The crime that has become the haven in architectural practice. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 2020 Sep 1; 11(3):823-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2019.12.002
33. Elshater A, Abusaada H, Afifi S. What makes livable cities of today alike? Revisiting the criterion of singularity through two case studies. Cities. 2019 Sep 1; 92:273-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2019.04.008 [Article] [DOI]
34. Matracchi P, Sadeghi habibabad A. prioritizing the effect of “Light” in the religious places and environments with an emphasis on the sense of spirituality. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 2021 Jun 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2021.05.028 [Article] [DOI]
35. May M., Rizeq N. Impact of daylight quality on architectural space dynamics: Case study: City Mall. Amman, Jordan. 2012 August; 16(6): 3579-3585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.074 [Article] [DOI]
36. Abdollahi R. Design of lighting system for sacred places with the approach of improving technical and economic conditions. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 2021 Apr 2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2021.02.021 [Article] [DOI]
37. Zhang W, Liu H, Li Z, Liu H. Synergistic effects of edible plants with light environment on the emotion and sleep of humans in long-duration isolated environment. Life Sciences in Space Research. 2020 Feb 1; 24:42-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lssr.2019.11.003 [Article] [DOI]
38. Yan L, Lonstein JS, Nunez AA. Light as a modulator of emotion and cognition: Lessons learned from studying a diurnal rodent. Hormones and Behavior. 2019 May 1; 111:78-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2018.09.003 [Article] [DOI]
39. Ingy I, Rana A. The role of fenestration in promoting daylight performance. The mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century. 2016 December; 55(4): 3185-3193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2016.08.006 [Article] [DOI]
40. Bagerzadeh Kasiri, S., Kazemi Shishavan, M., Hosseini, A., Mehdi Seyed Almasi, S. Investigation of Zumthor’s Theory of Atmosphere in Experince of Spatial Quality of Religious Buildings in East Azarbaijan Mosques (Case study: Jame Mosques of Tabriz, Miyana, Sarab, Ahar, Bonab, Ajabshir. Journal of Architectural Thought, 2020. doi: 10.30479/at.2020.13289.1530 [Article] [DOI]
41. Miki M, Hiroyasu T, Imazato K. Proposal for an intelligent lighting system, and verification of control method effectiveness. InIEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems, 2004. 2004 Dec 1 (Vol. 1, pp. 520-525). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ICCIS.2004.1460469 [Article] [DOI]
42. Bazazzadeh H, Pilechiha P, Nadolny A, Mahdavinejad M, Hashemi Safaei SS. The Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Building Energy Consumption in Poland. Energies. 2021 July 06;14(14):4084. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en14144084 [Article] [DOI]
43. Valitabar M. Mohammadjavad M. Henry S. Peiman P. A dynamic vertical shading optimisation to improve view, visual comfort and operational energy. Open House International. 2021 Jul 9;46(3):401-415. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-02-2021-0031 [Article] [DOI]
44. Muhamad WN, Zain MY, Wahab N, Aziz NH, Abd Kadir R. Energy efficient lighting system design for building. In2010 International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation 2010 Jan 27 (pp. 282-286). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ISMS.2010.59 [Article] [DOI]
45. Soori PK, Vishwas M. Lighting control strategy for energy efficient office lighting system design. Energy and Buildings. 2013 Nov 1;66:329-37. [Article] [DOI]
46. Sipos L, Boros IF, Csambalik L, Székely G, Jung A, Balázs L. Horticultural lighting system optimalization: A review. Scientia Horticulturae. 2020 Nov 17;273:109631. [Article] [DOI]
47. Byun J, Hong I, Lee B, Park S. Intelligent household LED lighting system considering energy efficiency and user satisfaction. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. 2013 Apr 4;59(1):70-6. DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2013.6490243 [Article] [DOI]
48. Schlegel GO, Burkholder FW, Klein SA, Beckman WA, Wood BD, Muhs JD. Analysis of a full spectrum hybrid lighting system. Solar Energy. 2004 Apr 1;76(4):359-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2003.11.005 [Article] [DOI]
49. Futrell BJ, Ozelkan EC, Brentrup D. Optimizing complex building design for annual daylighting performance and evaluation of optimization algorithms. Energy and Buildings. 2015 Apr 1;92:234-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.01.017 [Article] [DOI]
50. Reinhart CF, Mardaljevic J, Rogers Z. Dynamic daylight performance metrics for sustainable building design. Leukos. 2006 Jul 1;3(1):7-31. https://doi.org/10.1582/LEUKOS.2006.03.01.001 [Article] [DOI]
51. Aghaeimehr M, Mirhasheminasab Astane S, Daneshjoo K, Khayat Zanjani M. Comparison of Light Effects in Sohrevardi´s Opinion and Safavid Architecture. Naqshejahan. 2018 Jun 22; 8 (2):123-131. http://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1397. [Article] [DOI]
52. SoltanKashefi J. The Analysis of Aesthetics of Light in Tenebrism (Since 15th Century to the Present). Theoretical Principles of Visual Arts, 2020 Jun 21; 5(1): 4-20. doi: 10.22051/jtpva.2020.27280.1104 [Article] [DOI]
53. PietroMatracchi A, Sadeghi H. Explaining and evaluating the quality of “light” in religious environments and its effect on spirituality,2021 2 July ; 10(2); 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2021.06.001 [Article] [DOI]
54. Mohd Zafrullah M, Mohamad Tajuddin R. Architecture Evolution: Perception and Behaviour. 2012; 49 293-303: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.07.027 [Article] [DOI]
55. Pourmohammad, S., Mokhtabad Emraei, S., Habib, F. The comparison of the principles of manifesting unity and colored aspects of traditional openings (With an emphasis on analyzing two traditional mansions in Shiraz). Journal of Architectural Thought, 2020; 4(8): 252-265. doi: 10.30479/at.2020.11728.1333 [Article] [DOI]
56. Puriyay, A., Shayestehfar, M. A General Outlook on the Basics of Coloring in Traditional Iranian Arts (with Emphasis on the 4th to 6th centuries AH). Islamic Art Studies, 2021; 17(40). doi: 10.22034/ias.2021.214036.1125 [Article] [DOI]
57. Feng L, Zhou J, Xiangli B, Jing J, Li Y, He X, et al. Design of a nonlinearity-corrected spectrometer based on curved prism. Optics Communications. 2019 Mar 1; 434:239-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2018.11.008
58. Spalholz H, Perkins-Veazie P, Hernández R. Impact of sun-simulated white light and varied blue: red spectrums on the growth, morphology, development, and phytochemical content of green- and red-leaf lettuce at different growth stages. Scientia Horticulturae. 2020 Apr 5; 264:109195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2020.109195 [Article] [DOI]
59. Kischkoweit-Lopin M. An overview of daylighting systems. Solar Energy. 2002 Aug 1;73(2):77-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-092X(02)00036-1 [Article] [DOI]
60. Lee J, Boubekri M, Liang F. Impact of building design parameters on daylighting metrics using an analysis, prediction, and optimization approach based on statistical learning technique. Sustainability. 2019 Jan;11(5):1474. [Article] [DOI]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.