Volume 12, Issue 2 (2022)                   Naqshejahan 2022, 12(2): 1-20 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hosseini S A, Bemanian M. shape Grammar of Kashan’s traditional Houses: Investigation of the formal structure and spatial relations of 19 historical houses of Kashan. Naqshejahan. 2022; 12 (2) :1-20
URL: http://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-56632-en.html
1- PhD Student, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor of Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran , bemanian@modares.ac.ir
Abstract:   (888 Views)

Aims: Iranian architecture has been studied from different aspects. Shape Grammar is an analytical tool for studying the styles and history of architecture that has the ability to provide a common language and conceptual framework, a coherent and integrated form to study the geographical differences and evolution of Iranian architecture.

In this research, the first step to compile this common grammar of Iranian architecture has been taken by compiling a grammar of a specific form related to the traditional houses of Kashan.

Methods: Out of 100 heritage houses, 19 samples were selected by random / judgmental sampling method. By analyzing the samples, minimal rules are presented.

Findings: The grammar presented in 4 steps produces the formal structure and the spatial relationships between the forms. A valid range of variables and an algebraic expression are presented. Also, with the help of grammar, the spaces in the samples have been typologized. In Kashan houses, the most important spaces, spaces with a width of 5, can be divided into 8 types based on the shape structure. In terms of spatial relationships between components, 6 specific types of relationships between the internal components of each of the previous form structures can be identified, which are described in the findings section.

Conclusion: The proposed grammar can be a coherent structure for the study of Iranian architecture. It can also be used as a suitable tool for typology. Provide the possibility of comparison as well as the relationship between different species and make the studies coherent.

Full-Text [PDF 1367 kb]   (582 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Pioneer Islamic Iranian Art and Architecture
Received: 2021/10/24 | Accepted: 2022/01/26 | Published: 2022/06/22

References
1. Mahdavinejad M. Designerly Approach to Energy Efficiency in High-Performance Architecture Theory. Naqshejahan - Basic Studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2020 Sep 10;10(2):75-83. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1399.10.2.7.5 [Article] [DOI]
2. Mahdavinejad M. Dilemma of Prosperity and Technology in Contemporary Architecture of Developing Countries. Naqshejahan - Basic Studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning, 2014 Sep 10;3(2):35-42. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1393.4.2.7.3 [Article] [DOI]
3. Nasr T, Rismani A, Bahadori M. The Significance of Natural Components of Quranic Life in Islamic-Iranian Architecture (Case Studies: Residential Architecture of Qajar, Zand and Pahlavi Eras in Shiraz). Naqshejahan - Basic Studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning, 2017 Dec 10;7(3):47-62. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1396.7.3.5.4 [Article] [DOI]
4. Kamyar M, Taghvaea A A, Khazaei R. Unstable Condition of Housing in Tehran: Disruption or Dynamism. Naqshejahan - Basic Studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2017 Apr 10;7(1):13-20. [Persian] [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1396.7.1.1.6 [Article] [DOI]
5. Kasraei MH, Nourian Y, Mahdavinejad M. Girih for domes: analysis of three Iranian domes. Nexus Network Journal. 2016 Apr 1;18(1):311-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-015-0282-4 [Article] [DOI]
6. Fallahtafti R, Mahdavinejad M. Window geometry impact on a room's wind comfort. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. 2021 Mar 24;28(9):2381-2410. https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0075 [Article] [DOI]
7. Javanroodi K, Mahdavinejad M, Nik VM. Impacts of urban morphology on reducing cooling load and increasing ventilation potential in hot-arid climate. Applied Energy. 2018; 231: 714-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.116 [Article] [DOI]
8. Saadatjoo P, Saligheh E. The Role of Buildings Distribution Pattern on Outdoor Airflow and Received Daylight in Residential Complexes; Case study: Residential Complexes in Tehran. Naqshejahan - Basic studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2021 Nov 10;11(3):67-92. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1400.11.3.4.1 [Article] [DOI]
9. Valitabar M. Mohammadjavad M. Henry S. Peiman P. A dynamic vertical shading optimisation to improve view, visual comfort and operational energy. Open House International. 2021 Jul 9;46(3):401-415. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-02-2021-0031 [Article] [DOI]
10. Bazazzadeh H, Świt-Jankowska B, Fazeli N, Nadolny A, Safar Ali Najar B, Hashemi Safaei S, Mahdavinejad M. Efficient Shading Device as an Important Part of Daylightophil Architecture; a Designerly Framework of High-Performance Architecture for an Office Building in Tehran. Energies. 2021 December 8;14(24), 8272. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248272 [Article] [DOI]
11. Pilechiha P, Mahdavinejad M, Rahimian FP, Carnemolla P, Seyedzadeh S. Multi-objective optimisation framework for designing office windows: quality of view, daylight and energy efficiency. Applied Energy. 2020 Mar 1; 261: 114356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114356 [Article] [DOI]
12. Rahbar M, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Davaie Markazi AH, Hovestadt L. Generating Synthetic Space Allocation Probability Layouts Based on Trained Conditional-GANs. Applied Artificial Intelligence. 2019 Jul 3;33(8):689-705. https://doi.org/10.1080/08839514.2019.1592919 [Article] [DOI]
13. Tadayon K, Mahdavinejad M, Shahcheraghi A. Advanced mathematical algorithms to outline integrated architectural design process. Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design. 2021 Aug 23;9(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.22061/JSAUD.2020.6603.1686 [Article] [DOI]
14. Siadatian S, Pourjafar M. Testing the Application of "Justified Plan Graph"(JPG) in Iranian-Islamic Architecture Case Studies: Rasoolian House in Yazd and a House in Masooleh Naqshejahan - Basic studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2015;4(3):27-39. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1393.4.3.4.2
15. Hamedani Golshan H. Space Syntax, a Brief Review on its Origins and Methods in Architecture and Urban Design. Case Study: Brojerdiha Mansion, Kashan, IRAN. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba Memary Va Shahrsazi. 2015;20(2):85–92. https://doi.org/10.22059/JFAUP.2015.56720 [Article] [DOI]
16. Esmaeilian Toussi H, Etessam E. Analysis of the Architecture of the Industrial Heritage Using a Combined Method of Typology and Analytical Shape Grammar (Case Study of Textile Factories of Isfahan and Yazd in the Pahlavi Era). Naqshejahan - Basic Studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2019 Mar 10;9(1):1-12. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23224991.1398.9.1.6.5 [Article] [DOI]
17. Vaqar SA, Zarghami EI, Qanbaran AA. Analysis of the interaction between the formal types of traditional houses and spatial configurations using space syntax case study: traditional houses of Kashan. Journal of Iranian Architecture Studies. 2020 Mar 10;8(16):153-79. https://doi.org/10.22052/1.16.153 [Article] [DOI]
18. Latifi M, Diba D. Data mining of the spatial structure of Qajar native housing; Case study: Jangjouyan House of Isfahan. Naqshejahan-Basic studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2020 Oct 10;10(3):163-71. [Persian] https://dorl.net/dor 20.1001.1.23224991.1399.10.3.7.7 [Article] [DOI]
19. Hasani K, Borazjani VN, Salami MN. Re-read of Court’s Form and Related Spaces with Shape Grammar Case Study: 100 Houses of Qajar Dynasty in Kashan City. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-E Nazar. 2017 Feb 1;13(44):65-76. [Persian] Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bagh-E-Nazar/publication/320058452_Re-read_of_Court's_Form_and_Related_Spaces_with_Shape_Grammar_Case_Study_100_Houses_of_Qajar_Dynasty_in_Kashan_City/links/59cb83490f7e9bbfdc3b374a/Re-read-of-Courts-Form-and-Related-Spaces-with-Shape-Grammar-Case-Study-100-Houses-of-Qajar-Dynasty-in-Kashan-City.pdf [Article]
20. Hasani K, Nourouzborazjani V. A Specification of a New Pattern of Shape Grammar in Architecture of Today’s houses; Case study: Qajar houses in Tabriz and Tehran. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-E Nazar. 2018 Sep 4;15(63):29-40. https://doi.org/10.22034/BAGH.2018.67365
21. Memarian G, Sadoughi A. Application of access graphs and home culture: examining factors relative to climate and privacy in Iranian houses. Scientific Research and Essays. 2011 Dec 9;6(30):6350-63. https://academicjournals.org/journal/SRE/article-abstract/DC3AE3B31001 [Article]
22. Memarian G. House typology in Iran (with special reference to Shiraz) (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Manchester). https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.505868 [Article]
23. Haeri Mazandarani M. House, Culture, Nature: Studying the Architecture of Historic and Contemporary Homes to Formulate design Process and Criteria. 1st ed. Tehran: Iranian Center of Urban and Architectural study and Research; 2009.
24. Haeri Mazandarani M. The place of space in iranian architecture: Seven article in language & potentials of architecture. Tehran: Office of Cultural Research; 2009.
25. Rahbar M, Mahdavinejad M, Markazi A.H.D., Bemanian M. Architectural layout design through deep learning and agent-based modeling: A hybrid approach. Journal of Building Engineering. 2022 April15; 47, 103822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103822 [Article] [DOI]
26. Stiny G, Gips J. Shape grammars and the generative specification of painting and sculpture. InIFIP congress (2) 1971 Aug 23 (Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 125-135). http://home.fa.utl.pt/~lromao/2008_09/sg/aula_3/stiny_gips_aula_3.pdf [Article]
27. Eilouti BH. A formal language for Palladian palazzo façades represented by a string recognition device. Nexus Network Journal. 2008 Oct;10(2):245-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-007-0068-4 [Article] [DOI]
28. Eilouti BH. A formal language for Palladian palazzo façades represented by a string recognition device. Nexus Network Journal. 2008 Oct;10(2):245-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-007-0068-4 [Article] [DOI]
29. Benrós D, Duarte JP, Hanna S. A new palladian shape grammar: A subdivision grammar as alternative to the palladian grammar. International journal of architectural computing. 2012 Dec;10(4):521-40. https://doi.org/10.1260/1478-0771.10.4.521 [Article] [DOI]
30. Eilouti BH, Hamamieh Al Shaar MJ. Shape grammars of traditional Damascene houses. International Journal of Architectural Heritage. 2012 Jul 1;6(4):415-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2011.575530 [Article] [DOI]
31. Krüger M, Duarte JP, Coutinho F. Decoding De Re Aedificatoria: using grammars to trace Alberti’s influence on Portuguese classical architecture. Nexus Network Journal. 2011 Apr;13(1):171-82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-011-0060-x [Article] [DOI]
32. Lee JH, Ostwald MJ, Gu N. A Combined Plan Graph and Massing Grammar Approach to Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie Architecture. Nexus Network Journal. 2017 Jul;19(2):279-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-017-0333-0 [Article] [DOI]
33. Hajighasemi K. Ganjnameh: Encyclopedia of Islamic Architecture of Iran, Volume One: Kashan Houses. 1375. Shahid Beheshti University; 1996.
34. Farrokhyar H. One hundred Houses One hundred Plans: Architectural features of old houses in the historical fabric of hot and arid climates. Kashan: Islamic Azad University (Kashan Branch): Young Researchers Club; 2013.
35. Rahravi Poodeh S, Valibeig N, Dehghan N, Masoud M. The Structural Typology of the Main Spaces in Isfahan’s Historical Housed with A Central Yard in Terms of Their Plan. Soffeh. 2018 Sep 23;28(3):127-48. https://soffeh.sbu.ac.ir/article_100441.html?lang=en
36. Rahravi S, Valibeig N, Dehghan N, Masoud M. Analysis of the Formal Features of Chaharsofe Houses and its Influence on the Formal Structure of Introverted Houses in the City of Isfahan. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-E Nazar. 2019 May 22;16(72):5-20. https://doi.org/10.22034/BAGH.2019.87455 [Article] [DOI]
37. Shakouri R, Seyyed-Khamoushi S. Spatial Affordance in Domestic Persian Architecture; Case Study: Shekam Darideh Room, Lariha's Residence, Yazd. Journal of Housing and Rural Environment. 2017 Dec 10;36(159):119-32. Available from: http://jhre.ir/article-1-1137-en.html [Article] [DOI]
38. Judgaki Aziz A, Mousavi Haji SR, Mehr Afarin R. Chaharsofeh Pattern Typology at Iranian Architecture and Its Evolution. Islamic Architecture Research. 2014;2(4):14-81. http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-111-en.html [Article] [DOI]
39. Joodaki Azizi A, Mousavi Haji SR. Recognition and the analysis of Nohgonbad Pattern in Iranian Architecture Through Literary Texts. Comparative Literature Research. 2017 Jun 10;4(4):168-207. https://dorl.net/dor 20.1001.1.23452366.1395.4.4.3.6 [Article] [DOI]
40. Gholami GH, Kavian M. Examining Chahar Soffeh in the Spatial Structure of Iranian Residential Architecture in Hot and Arid Areas. Journal of Housing and Rural Environment. 2017 Jun 10;36(157):149-61. http://jhre.ir/article-1-802-en.html [Article] [DOI]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.