Volume 13, Issue 2 (2023)                   Naqshejahan 2023, 13(2): 85-103 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rezadoost Dezfuli R, Taban M, Bazazzadeh H. Investigating of ventilation in apartments in a hot and semi-humid climate. Naqshejahan 2023; 13 (2) : 5
URL: http://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-67755-en.html
1- Master of Architectural engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
2- Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran , Mntaban@jsu.ac.ir
3- Researcher, Faculty of Architecture, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland
Abstract:   (1498 Views)
Aims: Today, the energy crisis has become a global problem, and all countries are involved in this crisis, so solutions with small results can lead to significant changes on a macro scale. Passive cooling strategies are a method to reduce energy consumption in buildings and help improve and promote energy management in hot climates.

Methods: The current study analysis ventilation performance related to constructing four-story buildings. Furthermore, there is a heavy investigation into the mechanical aspects of ventilation; hence this research is going to fill the gap in the architectural view of the ventilation system. The modeling uses energy software (Design-Builder).

Findings: Studies have been conducted to investigate the position of the stack, and the earth's rotation, in addition to changes in the materials of the stack in the residential area of Dezful city. The most frequent residential land size in the residential area of Dezful is 10x20 square meters. In addition, changing materials has a direct impact on stack ventilation.

Conclusion: The simulation outcomes demonstrated that material and site rotation changes could alter the stack's performance, meaning that glass can be more effective than aluminum. Still, the position of the stack in the plan does not make a significant difference in the stack's performance. The result is outstanding for architects and all people working in this field, which can be a guideline in designing energy-efficient.
Article number: 5
Full-Text [PDF 1646 kb]   (981 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Highperformance Architecture
Received: 2023/02/25 | Accepted: 2023/06/7 | Published: 2023/06/22

1. Ozarisoy B. Energy effectiveness of passive cooling design strategies to reduce the impact of long-term heatwaves on occupants’ thermal comfort in Europe: Climate change and mitigation. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2022;330:129675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129675 [Article] [DOI]
2. Cuce E, Sher F, Sadiq H, Cuce PM, Guclu T, Besir AB. Sustainable ventilation strategies in buildings: CFD research. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 2019;36:100540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2019.100540 [Article] [DOI]
3. Rahif R, Hamdy M, Homaei S, Zhang C, Holzer P, Attia S. Simulation-based framework to evaluate resistivity of cooling strategies in buildings against overheating impact of climate change. Building and Environment. 2022;208:108599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108599 [Article] [DOI]
4. Iqbal N, Kim DH. Iot task management mechanism based on predictive optimization for efficient energy consumption in smart residential buildings. Energy and Buildings. 2022 Feb 15;257:111762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103406 [Article] [DOI]
5. Yang D, Li P. Dimensionless design approach, applicability and energy performance of stack-based hybrid ventilation for multi-story buildings. Energy. 2015;93:128-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.08.115 [Article] [DOI]
6. Azimirad M, Nadalian B, Alavifard H, Panirani SN, Bonab SMV, Azimirad F, et al. Microbiological survey and occurrence of bacterial foodborne pathogens in raw and ready-to-eat green leafy vegetables marketed in Tehran, Iran. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2021;237:113824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2021.113824 [Article] [DOI]
7. Mansourimajoumerd P, Bazazzadeh H, Mahdavinejad M, Nia SN. Energy Efficiency and Building's Envelope: An Integrated Approach to High-Performance Architecture. Urban Planning and Architectural Design for Sustainable Development (UPADSD 2021). Florence, Italy, 14, Sep / 16, Sep 2021; Pp. 122-123. Available at: https://flore.unifi.it/bitstream/2158/1259071/6/UPADSD%202021_ATTI_Firenze.pdf#page=133 [Article]
8. Bazazzadeh H, Świt-Jankowska B, Fazeli N, Nadolny A, Safar Ali Najar B, Hashemi safaei Ss, et al. Efficient Shading Device as an Important Part of Daylightophil Architecture; a Designerly Framework of High-Performance Architecture for an Office Building in Tehran. Energies. 2021;14(24):8272. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248272 [Article] [DOI]
9. Mansourimajoumerd P, Mahdavinejad M, Niknia S, Shirvani M. Comprehensive Strategies for Optimization e_Energy System in Different Climate Zone. InThe 4th International Conference on Architecture, Arts and Applications www.iconfaaa.com 2020 Oct 12. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3709733 [Article] [DOI]
10. Adibhesami MA, Karimi H, Sharifi A, Sepehri B, Bazazzadeh H, Berardi U. Optimization of Urban-Scale Sustainable Energy Strategies to Improve Citizens’ Health. Energies. 2022;16(1):119. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010119 [Article] [DOI]
11. Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M, Vakilinejad R, Bazazzadeh H, Monfared M. Effects of sea-breeze natural ventilation on thermal comfort in low-rise buildings with diverse atrium roof shapes in BWh regions. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. 2023;41:102638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2022.102638 [Article] [DOI]
12. Zafarmandi S, Mahdavinejad M, Norford L, Matzarakis A. Analyzing Thermal Comfort Sensations in Semi-Outdoor Space on a University Campus: On-Site Measurements in Tehran’s Hot and Cold Seasons. Atmosphere. 2022 June 22;13, 1034. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13071034 [Article] [DOI]
13. Talaei M, Mahdavinejad M, Azari R, Prieto A, Sangin H. Multi-objective optimization of building-integrated microalgae photobioreactors for energy and daylighting performance. Journal of Building Engineering. 2021;42:102832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.102832 [Article] [DOI]
14. Laskari M, de Masi RF, Karatasou S, Santamouris M, Assimakopoulos MN. On the impact of user behaviour on heating energy consumption and indoor temperature in residential buildings. Energy and Buildings. 2022 Jan 15;255:111657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2021.111657 [Article] [DOI]
15. Bazazzadeh H, Pilechiha P, Nadolny A, Mahdavinejad M, Hashemi safaei Ss. The impact assessment of climate change on building energy consumption in Poland. Energies. 2021;14(14):4084. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144084 [Article] [DOI]
16. Bazazzadeh H, Nadolny A, Safaei SSH. Climate change and building energy consumption: A review of the impact of weather parameters influenced by climate change on household heating and cooling demands of buildings. European Journal of Sustainable Development. 2021;10(2):1-. https://doi.org/10.14207/ejsd.2021.v10n2p1 [Article] [DOI]
17. Leng PC, Ahmad MH, Ossen DR, Ling GH, Abdullah S, Aminudin E, et al. The impact of air well geometry in a Malaysian single storey terraced house. Sustainability. 2019;11(20):5730. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205730 [Article] [DOI]
18. Krzaczek M, Florczuk J, Tejchman J. Field investigations of stack ventilation in a residential building with multiple chimneys and tilted window in cold climate. Energy and Buildings. 2015;103:48-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.06.034 [Article] [DOI]
19. Torabi M, Mahdavinejad M. Past and Future Trends on the Effects of Occupant Behaviour on Building Energy Consumption. J. Sustain. Archit. Civ. Eng. 2021 Oct 27;29(2) 83-101. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.28576 [Article] [DOI]
20. Kravchenko I, Kosonen R, Jokisalo J, Kilpeläinen S. Performance of Modern Passive Stack Ventilation in a Retrofitted Nordic Apartment Building. Buildings. 2022;12(2):96. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020096 [Article] [DOI]
21. Kravchenko I, Kosonen R, Jokisalo J, Kilpeläinen S, editors. Simulation of modern passive stack ventilation in a retrofitted Nordic apartment building. E3S Web of Conferences; 2022: EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202236214003 [Article] [DOI]
22. Kyritsi E, Michael A. An assessment of the impact of natural ventilation strategies and window opening patterns in office buildings in the Mediterranean basin. Building and Environment. 2020;175:106384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106384 [Article] [DOI]
23. Talaei M, Mahdavinejad M, Azari R, Haghighi HM, Atashdast A. Thermal and energy performance of a user-responsive microalgae bioreactive façade for climate adaptability. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 2022 Aug 1;52:101894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2021.101894 [Article] [DOI]
24. Moret Rodrigues A, Santos M, Gomes MG, Duarte R. Impact of natural ventilation on the thermal and energy performance of buildings in a Mediterranean climate. Buildings. 2019;9(5):123. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050123 [Article] [DOI]
25. Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M. Prediction Indoor Thermal Comfort in Traditional Houses of Shiraz with PMV/PPD model. International Journal of Ambient Energy. 2022 Dec 31;43(1):8316-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2022.2092774 [Article] [DOI]
26. Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M. Prediction Indoor Thermal Comfort in Traditional Houses of Shiraz with PMV/PPD model. International Journal of Ambient Energy. 2022 Dec 31;43(1):8316-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2022.2092774 [Article] [DOI]
27. Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M, Pourghasemian MH. A new design to create natural ventilation in buildings: Wind chimney. Journal of Building Engineering. 2022 Aug 22:105041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2022.105041 [Article] [DOI]
28. Daemei AB, Limaki AK, Safari H. Opening performance simulation in natural ventilation using design builder (case study: a residential home in Rasht). Energy Procedia. 2016;100:412-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.10.196 [Article] [DOI]
29. Chung LP, Ahmad MH, Ossen DR, Hamid M. Effective solar chimney cross section ventilation performance in Malaysia terraced house. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015;179:276-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.431 [Article] [DOI]
30. Saadatjoo P, Mahdavinejad M, Zhang G. A study on terraced apartments and their natural ventilation performance in hot and humid regions. Building Simulation. 2018 Apr 1;11(2):359-372. Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-017-0407-7 [Article] [DOI]
31. Saadatjoo P, Mahdavinejad M, Zhang G, Vali K. Influence of permeability ratio on wind-driven ventilation and cooling load of mid-rise buildings. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2021 Jul 1;70:102894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.102894 [Article] [DOI]
32. Giouri ED, Tenpierik M, Turrin M. Zero energy potential of a high-rise office building in a Mediterranean climate: Using multi-objective optimization to understand the impact of design decisions towards zero-energy high-rise buildings. Energy and Buildings. 2020;209:109666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109666 [Article] [DOI]
33. Michalak P. Thermal—Airflow Coupling in Hourly Energy Simulation of a Building with Natural Stack Ventilation. Energies. 2022;15(11):4175. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114175 [Article] [DOI]
34. Rodrigues Marques Sakiyama N, Frick J, Bejat T, Garrecht H. Using CFD to evaluate natural ventilation through a 3D parametric modeling approach. Energies. 2021;14(8):2197. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082197 [Article] [DOI]
35. Nguyen Y, Wells J. A numerical study on induced flowrate and thermal efficiency of a solar chimney with horizontal absorber surface for ventilation of buildings. Journal of Building Engineering. 2020;28:101050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2019.101050 [Article] [DOI]
36. Hosien M, Selim S. Effects of the geometrical and operational parameters and alternative outer cover materials on the performance of solar chimney used for natural ventilation. Energy and Buildings. 2017;138:355-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.12.041 [Article] [DOI]
37. Rahbar M, Mahdavinejad M, Markazi A.H.D., Bemanian M. Architectural layout design through deep learning and agent-based modeling: A hybrid approach. Journal of Building Engineering. 2022 April15; 47, 103822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103822 [Article] [DOI]
38. Rahbar M, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Davaie Markazi AH, Hovestadt L. Generating Synthetic Space Allocation Probability Layouts Based on Trained Conditional-GANs. Applied Artificial Intelligence. 2019 Jul 3;33(8):689-705. https://doi.org/10.1080/08839514.2019.1592919 [Article] [DOI]
39. Chen J, Brager GS, Augenbroe G, Song X. Impact of outdoor air quality on the natural ventilation usage of commercial buildings in the US. Applied energy. 2019;235:673-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.020 [Article] [DOI]
40. Harvey LD, Korytarova K, Lucon O, Roshchanka V. Construction of a global disaggregated dataset of building energy use and floor area in 2010. Energy and Buildings. 2014;76:488-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.03.011 [Article] [DOI]
41. Shi L, Zhang G, Yang W, Huang D, Cheng X, Setunge S. Determining the influencing factors on the performance of solar chimney in buildings. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018;88:223-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.02.033 [Article] [DOI]
42. Qasemi E, Mahdavinejad M, Aliabadi M, Zarkesh A. Leaf venation patterns as a model for bioinspired fog harvesting. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2020 Oct 20;603:125170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2020.125170 [Article] [DOI]
43. Pourfathollah M, Mahdavinejad M. Viewerphilic nightscape based on correlated color temperature. Color Research and Application. 2020; 45(1): 120-128. https://doi.org/10.1002/col.22450 [Article] [DOI]
44. Afonso C, Oliveira A. Solar chimneys: simulation and experiment. Energy and buildings. 2000;32(1):71-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(99)00038-9 [Article] [DOI]
45. Pakdehi SG, Salimi M, Rasoolzadeh M, Abbasi M. Influence of γ-Al2O3 nano particles on the properties of washcoats deposited on cordierite monoliths. Journal of Ceramic Processing Research. 2015 Oct 1;16(5):505-510. https://doi.org/10.36410/jcpr.2015.16.5.505 [Article] [DOI]
46. Jianliu X, Weihua L. Study on solar chimney used for room natural ventilation in Nanjing. Energy and Buildings. 2013;66:467-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.036 [Article] [DOI]
47. Zha X, Zhang J, Qin M. Experimental and numerical studies of solar chimney for ventilation in low energy buildings. Procedia Engineering. 2017;205:1612-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.10.294 [Article] [DOI]
48. Nikoudel F, Mahdavinejad M, Vazifehdan J. Nocturnal Architecture of Buildings: Interaction of Exterior Lighting and Visual Beauty. Light & Engineering, 2018 Jan 1; 26(1): 81-90. https://doi.org/10.33383/2016-008 [Article] [DOI]
49. Hong S, He G, Ge W, Wu Q, Lv D, Li Z, editors. Annual energy performance simulation of solar chimney in a cold winter and hot summer climate. Building Simulation; 2019: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-019-0572-y [Article] [DOI]
50. Mohtashami N, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M. Contribution of city prosperity to decisions on healthy building design: A case study of Tehran. Frontiers of Architectural Research. 2016 Sep 1;5(3):319-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2016.06.001 [Article] [DOI]
51. Ding W, Hasemi Y, Yamada T. Natural ventilation performance of a double-skin façade with a solar chimney. Energy and buildings. 2005;37(4):411-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.08.002 [Article] [DOI]
52. Teleszewski TJ, Gładyszewska-Fiedoruk K. Characteristics of humidity in classrooms with stack ventilation and development of calculation models of humidity based on the experiment. Journal of Building Engineering. 2020;31:101381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2020.101381 [Article] [DOI]
53. Mansourimajoumerd P, Bazazzadeh H, Mahdavinejad M, Nia SN. Energy Efficiency and Building’s Envelope: An Integrated Approach to High-Performance Architecture. In Urban and Transit Planning: City Planning: Urbanization and Circular Development 2023 Apr 1 (pp. 25-33). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-20995-6_3 [Article] [DOI]
54. Deng JY, Wong NH, Hii DJ, Yu Z, Tan E, Zhen M, Tong S. Indoor Thermal Environment in Different Generations of Naturally Ventilated Public Residential Buildings in Singapore. Atmosphere. 2022 Dec;13(12):2118. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13122118 [Article] [DOI]
55. Mahdavinejad M, Zia A, Larki AN, Ghanavati S, Elmi N. Dilemma of green and pseudo green architecture based on LEED norms in case of developing countries. International journal of sustainable built environment, 2014 Dec 1;3(2):235-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2014.06.003 [Article] [DOI]
56. Lei Y, Zhang Y, Wang F, Wang X. Enhancement of natural ventilation of a novel roof solar chimney with perforated absorber plate for building energy conservation. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2016;107:653-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.06.090 [Article] [DOI]
57. Wu Y, Gao N, Niu J, Zang J, and Cao Q,. Numerical study on natural ventilation of the wind tower: Effects of combining with different window configurations in a low-rise house. Building and Environment 2021 JAN; 188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.107450 [Article] [DOI]
58. Gan G. Simulation of buoyancy-induced flow in open cavities for natural ventilation. Energy and buildings. 2006;38(5):410-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.08.002 [Article] [DOI]
59. Mahdavinejad M, Salehnejad H, Moradi N. An ENVI-met Simulation Study on Influence of Urban Vegetation Congestion on Pollution Dispersion. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution. 2018 Jan 1;15(2):187-94. https://doi.org/10.3233/ajw-180031 [Article] [DOI]
60. Ozarisoy B, Altan H. Regression forecasting of neutral adaptive thermal comfort: A field study investigation in the south-eastern Mediterranean climate of Cyprus. Building and Environment. 2021;202:108013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108013 [Article] [DOI]
61. Alibaba HZ. Heat and air flow behavior of naturally ventilated offices in a Mediterranean climate. Sustainability. 2018;10(9):3284. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093284 [Article] [DOI]
62. Mahdavinejad M, Javanroodi K. Natural ventilation performance of ancient wind catchers, an experimental and analytical study–case studies: one-sided, two-sided and four-sided wind catchers. International journal of energy technology and policy, 2014 Jan 1;10(1):36-60. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJETP.2014.065036 [Article] [DOI]
63. Ghiaus C, Allard F, Santamouris M, Georgakis C, Nicol F. Urban environment influence on natural ventilation potential. Building and environment. 2006;41(4):395-406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.02.003 [Article] [DOI]
64. Mahdavinejad M, Hosseini SA. Data mining and content analysis of the jury citations of the Pritzker Architecture prize (1977–2017). Journal of Architecture and Urbanism. 2019 Feb 1;43(1):71-90. https://doi.org/10.3846/jau.2019.5209 [Article] [DOI]
65. Mahdavinejad M, Bazazzadeh H, Mehrvarz F, Berardi U, Nasr T, Pourbagher S, Hoseinzadeh S. The impact of facade geometry on visual comfort and energy consumption in an office building in different climates. Energy Reports. 2024 Jun 1;11:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2023.11.021 [Article] [DOI]
66. Heidarzadeh S, Mahdavinejad M, Habib F. External shading and its effect on the energy efficiency of Tehran's office buildings. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 2023 May 17:e14185. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.14185 [Article] [DOI]
67. Heidari F, Mahdavinejad M, Werner LC, Roohabadi M, Sarmadi H. Biocomputational Architecture Based on Particle Physics. Front. Energy Res. 2021 July 08;9:620127. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2021.620127 [Article] [DOI]
68. Suhendri S, Hu M, Su Y, Darkwa J, Riffat S. Parametric study of a novel combination of solar chimney and radiative cooling cavity for natural ventilation enhancement in residential buildings. Building and Environment. 2022 Nov 1;225:109648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2022.109648 [Article] [DOI]
69. Haghshenas M, Hadianpour M, Matzarakis A, Mahdavinejad M, Ansari M. Improving the suitability of selected thermal indices for predicting outdoor thermal sensation in Tehran. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2021 Jul 27:103205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.103205 [Article] [DOI]
70. Saroglou T, Theodosiou T, Givoni B, Meir IA. Studies on the optimum double-skin curtain wall design for high-rise buildings in the Mediterranean climate. Energy and Buildings. 2020;208:109641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109641 [Article] [DOI]
71. Hadianpour M, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Nasrollahi F. Seasonal differences of subjective thermal sensation and neutral temperature in an outdoor shaded space in Tehran, Iran. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2018 May 1; 39: 751-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.03.003 [Article] [DOI]
72. Hadianpour M, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Haghshenas M, Kordjamshidi M. Effects of windward and leeward wind directions on outdoor thermal and wind sensation in Tehran. Building and Environment. 2019 Mar 1;150:164-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.12.053 [Article] [DOI]
73. Moosavi L, Zandi M, Bidi M, Behroozizade E, Kazemi I. New design for solar chimney with integrated windcatcher for space cooling and ventilation. Building and Environment. 2020;181:106785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106785 [Article] [DOI]
74. Goharian A, Daneshjoo K, Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M, Yeganeh M. A designerly approach to daylight efficiency of central light-well; combining manual with NSGA-II algorithm optimization. Energy. 2023 Apr 17:127402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2023.127402 [Article] [DOI]
75. Goharian A, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Daneshjoo K. Designerly optimization of devices (as reflectors) to improve daylight and scrutiny of the light-well’s configuration. Building Simulation. 2021 Oct 9 (pp. 1-24). Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-021-0839-y [Article] [DOI]
76. Mokheimer EM, Shakeel MR, Al-Sadah J. A novel design of solar chimney for cooling load reduction and other applications in buildings. Energy and Buildings. 2017;153:219-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.08.011 [Article] [DOI]
77. Chen Y, Tong Z, Wu W, Samuelson H, Malkawi A, Norford L. Achieving natural ventilation potential in practice: Control schemes and levels of automation. Applied energy. 2019;235:1141-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.016 [Article] [DOI]
78. Goharian A, Mahdavinejad M. A novel approach to multi-apertures and multi-aspects ratio light pipe. Journal of Daylighting. 2020 Sep 16;7(2):186-200. https://doi.org/10.15627/jd.2020.17 [Article] [DOI]
79. Gharaati F, Mahdavinejad M, Nadolny A, Bazazzadeh H. Sustainable Assessment of Built Heritage Adaptive Reuse Practice: Iranian Industrial Heritage in the Light of International Charters. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice. 2023 Oct 4:1-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/17567505.2023.2261328 [Article] [DOI]
80. Punyasompun S, Hirunlabh J, Khedari J, Zeghmati B. Investigation on the application of solar chimney for multi-storey buildings. Renewable Energy. 2009;34(12):2545-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.03.032 [Article] [DOI]
81. Fallahtafti R, Mahdavinejad M. Window geometry impact on a room's wind comfort. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. 2021 Mar 24;28(9):2381-2410. https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0075 [Article] [DOI]
82. Dezfuli RR, Bazazzadeh H, Taban M, Mahdavinejad M. Optimizing stack ventilation in low and medium-rise residential buildings in hot and semi-humid climate. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. 2023 Oct 28:103555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2023.103555 [Article] [DOI]
83. Elshafei G, Negm A, Bady M, Suzuki M, Ibrahim MG. Numerical and experimental investigations of the impacts of window parameters on indoor natural ventilation in a residential building. Energy and Buildings. 2017;141:321-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.02.055 [Article] [DOI]
84. Fallahtafti R, Mahdavinejad M. Optimisation of building shape and orientation for better energy efficient architecture. International Journal of Energy Sector Management. 2015 Nov 2; 9(4): 593-618. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJESM-09-2014-0001 [Article] [DOI]
85. Ahmadi J, Mahdavinejad M, Asadi S. Folded double-skin façade (DSF): in-depth evaluation of fold influence on the thermal and flow performance in naturally ventilated channels. International Journal of Sustainable Energy. 2021 Jun 16:1-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786451.2021.1941019 [Article] [DOI]
86. Bouchair A. Solar chimney for promoting cooling ventilation in southern Algeria. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology. 1994;15(2):81-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/014362449401500203 [Article] [DOI]
87. Shi L, Cheng X, Zhang L, Li Z, Zhang G, Huang D, et al. Interaction effect of room opening and air inlet on solar chimney performance. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2019;159:113877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.113877 [Article] [DOI]
88. Ahmadi J, Mahdavinejad M, Larsen OK, Zhang C, Zarkesh A, Asadi S. Evaluating the different boundary conditions to simulate airflow and heat transfer in Double-Skin Facade. In Building Simulation 2022 May;15(5):799-815. Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-021-0824-5 [Article] [DOI]
89. Ahmadi J, Mahdavinejad M, Kalyanova Larsen O, Zhang C., Asadi S. Naturally Ventilated Folded Double-Skin Façade (DSF) for PV Integration-Geometry Evaluation via Thermal Performance Investigation. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress (2023): 102136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2023.102136 [Article] [DOI]
90. Ahmadi J, Mahdavinejad M, Larsen OK, Zhang C, Asadi S. Naturally ventilated folded double-skin façade (DSF) for PV integration-geometry evaluation via thermal performance investigation. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress. 2023 Oct 1;45:102136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2023.102136 [Article] [DOI]
91. Bansal N, Mathur R, Bhandari M. A study of solar chimney assisted wind tower system for natural ventilation in buildings. Building and environment. 1994;29(4):495-500. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-1323(94)90008-6 [Article] [DOI]
92. Khanal R, Lei C. Solar chimney—A passive strategy for natural ventilation. Energy and Buildings. 2011;43(8):1811-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.03.035 [Article] [DOI]
93. De la Torre S, Yousif C. Evaluation of chimney stack effect in a new brewery using DesignBuilder-EnergyPlus software. Energy Procedia. 2014;62:230-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.12.384 [Article] [DOI]
94. Al-Sakkaf A, Mohammed Abdelkader E, Mahmoud S, Bagchi A. Studying energy performance and thermal comfort conditions in heritage buildings: A case study of Murabba palace. Sustainability. 2021;13(21):12250. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112250 [Article] [DOI]
95. Abba HY, Majid RA, Ahmed MH, Gbenga O. Validation of designbuilder simulation accuracy using field measured data of indoor air temperature in a classroom building. Management.7(27):171-8. https://doi.org/10/35631/JTHEM.727014 [Article] [DOI]
96. Vurro G, Santamaria V, Chiarantoni C, Fiorito F. Climate Change Impact on Energy Poverty and Energy Efficiency in the Public Housing Building Stock of Bari, Italy. Climate. 2022;10(4):55. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10040055 [Article] [DOI]
97. Sakiyama N, Carlo J, Frick J, Garrecht H. Perspectives of naturally ventilated buildings: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2020;130:109933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.109933 [Article] [DOI]
98. Stavrakakis G, Zervas P, Sarimveis H, Markatos N. Development of a computational tool to quantify architectural-design effects on thermal comfort in naturally ventilated rural houses. Building and Environment. 2010;45(1):65-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.05.006 [Article] [DOI]
99. Morady E, Soltani M, Moradi Kashkooli F, Ziabasharhagh M, Al-Haq A, Nathwani J. Improving Energy Efficiency by Utilizing Wetted Cellulose Pads in Passive Cooling Systems. Energies. 2022;15(1):369. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010369 [Article] [DOI]
100. Van de Graaf T, Lesage D. The International Energy Agency after 35 years: Reform needs and institutional adaptability. The Review of International Organizations. 2009;4:293-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11558-009-9063-8 [Article] [DOI]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.