Volume 7, Issue 2 (2017)                   Naqshejahan 2017, 7(2): 58-69 | Back to browse issues page

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Kamran kasmaii H, Daneshjou K, Mofidi Shemirani S. Gilan native habitat assessment body-centered sustainable by Sachs and energy simulation software. Naqshejahan 2017; 7 (2) :58-69
URL: http://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-1463-en.html
1- PhD Student in Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran , khdaneshjoo@modares.ac.ir
3- Assistant Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (10681 Views)
The first performance of the home is to create shelter, a haven which provides peace for inhabitants. Village House is a safe and reliable "inner place" against "external environment" with the extent of the wild nature. Therefore, the first performance of the home is primary need of rural people. The formation of the house is affected by a variety of environmental factors of three surrounding environments which in different species are formed based on special regional and local materials of the area by natives of the area.
In fact, the most important characteristic of rural homes, especially (Gilan) is simplicity and harmony with the natural environment surrounding them, in such a way that, a building not only is not a waste element that is added to the environment, but is risen from its surroundings, and the stability is reached due to its exposure.
conditions, not only has led to a different appearance of the buildings in the area, but due to the abundant use of wood and plant fibers in the building, and special properties of these materials, methods of construction in Gilan is distinct from other parts of Iran. Studying traditional methods of construction in Gilan to identify a species of "architecture in harmony with nature", Leads us to full interaction of man and the surrounding environment, that all of them indicate Intelligent human knowledge in time with the technical limitations of construction, and the sense of respect for nature.
As architectural elements and building components, all in order to build a dynamic architecture in this particular area of the building not only by benefiting from natural curran in the summer leads to climate comfort in the spring and summer, but in winter with a layer of semi-enclosed elements, such as Faken, reduces the amount of heat exchange between indoor and the surrounding environment.
Accordingly, the logic of construction and materials are selected based on potential and natural resources in the region and leads to use the local materials, combining fences, columns, headers and wooden beams and flowers used in walls, decoration by flowers and roof with four slopes are considered as individual components of a vernacular architecture, that in the passage of time has damaged stability of the building like natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes, which is considered as an effective factor among the indicator species in each region.
In Gilan geographic reach, which air humidity and rainfall is very high, rural housing should not only meet human needs related to shelter, but must include climatic comfort relatively. As such, residential building must be constructed in such a way that reduxes moisture in the environment over human tolerance to have proper temperature and humidity conditions. In this area, because of moderate temperatures in many times of the year, reduced air humidity provides comfort because discomfort in summer is felt due to high relative humidity of the air at all times a day. So, wind can move easily in order to repel moisture around the body and the human environment.
The relationship between the building and the environment is considered as the most obvious aesthetic features of Gilan rural buildings, which is rooted in geography, cultural issues and style life in Gilan. The lack of tangible boundary between inside and outside has given to it different effects compared with the central regions of Iran.
The houses of the area are generally built either in the direction of East or with a little rotation from East to South and this is due to the use of maximum sunlight and air flow. The used materials are indigenous as other rural areas of Gilan and available materials are used. The walls in this region are mainly the combination between the "Chineei" 1 "Zegali" 2 and completely Zegali. Because of the abundance of straw in the area,”Kolosh”3 is used as Zegal in the walls. In fact, all the art of living in the Gilan plain can be summarized in coping with difficult climatic conditions such as annual rainfall by almost 1280 mm, the humidity between 70 to 90 percent and temperature fluctuation between * 20 and * 37 .
In different parts of the plains of Gilan where the climatic characteristics cause a particular kind of architecture, outward-oriented architecture, regardless of the contradictions and complexities of construction technique, and variations in the utilization of local and available materials, we're seeing similarities in the scheme of this type of architecture, the majority of similarities in these buildings include:
The existence of the porch and hallway in a four-walled building that most biological environments.
Get the limited space and enclosed in the heart of the monument and surrounded by a hallway and porch for winter time.
Multi-layer being the main views and spaces with a maximum porosity in the outermost level.
The height of the residential parts of the getting off the ground.
Placement comfy wooden stairs without an intermediary style that the relationship between the grounds and the supply of housing.
The mass use of plant and wood materials and uncoated amood.
The four characteristics of the dwellings of the plain Gila can be distinguished from includes the following items:
I. The height of the Earth's surface to protect it against moisture in the ground.
II. Fans with steep slope.
III. The existence of one or more of the aisle and the porch in views.
IV. Construction of houses based on vertical plan common build dwellings that central in Iran (Making room on the horizontal inner courtyard) is different
This research seeks to analyze the body of one of the native habitat of the index and the geographical boundaries of Gilan plain areas exclusively to the analysis method - described by Sachs and method of analysis techniques - modeling Builder designed with energy simulation software to evaluate a sample of their unit. Accordingly, the use of library studies on the described manner, the morphology of Gilan and provide basic concepts on completion of organ literature as early as the theoretical basis. The use of macro and micro-scale field studies of settlements to analyze the climate and the physical samples for example in the form of software modeling background design study builder and table Sachs contributed.
At the end of these studies show, as well as comfort in Gilan native settlements for rural residents and require the passage of time has been granted, Today, the role of climate change in temperate climate and wet in macro and micro scale habitable space And general changes in consumer materials residential structures in rural areas, the use of natural energy role in natural ventilation by not using energy artifact(Cooling and heating) is not possible and the combination of the two systems, natural and artificial energy is not inevitable, even in native settlements.
Research purposes
I. Clear analysis of how the formation of a native settlement on the centrality of body structure and climate
II. Assessment components and sub a native settlement in the description of the concepts of sustainable Sachs
III. Analysis of large-scale example of architecture in warm and cold seasons the energy simulation software
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Article Type: Technical Article | Subject: Highperformance Architecture
Received: 2017/06/26 | Accepted: 2017/08/23 | Published: 2017/09/6

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