Volume 14, Issue 2 (2024)                   Naqshejahan 2024, 14(2): 21-40 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mehrvarz F, Bemanian M, Zarkesh A. Optimizing a sample of Bushehr houses for visual comfort and energy-saving. Naqshejahan 2024; 14 (2) :21-40
URL: http://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-74230-en.html
1- MSc of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor of Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran , bemanian@modares.ac.ir
3- Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (350 Views)
Aims: Utilizing passive architectural elements to conserve energy and optimize natural lighting is a common solution in traditional Iranian architecture. Various factors such as building shape and orientation, window positioning, use of local materials, and shading devices are recognized as traditional architectural elements in warm and humid climates. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the efficiency and optimize architectural elements in the warm and humid climate of Bushehr city, focusing on energy consumption control and utilization of natural light.

Methods: Firstly, through documentary resources, the residential architectural patterns of Bushehr were identified. Then, using the Rhinoceros software environment and Grasshopper plugin, selected variables were parametrically modeled, and quantitative data analysis was conducted using energy tools and radiation analysis. Finally, optimal patterns were selected using a genetic algorithm, and the final response was presented with an annual performance analysis.

Findings: By optimizing passive strategies, UDI could be increased up to 96%, and energy consumption could be reduced up to 174.1 kWh/m2. In hot and humid climates, paying attention to the minimum absorption of sunlight is essential, in addition to the importance of using natural ventilation.

Conclusion: Using passive architectural elements such as the use of Shenashir, the proportions of the room and the window-to-wall ratio increases the performance of the building. The conclusion emphasizes the pivotal role of the contemporization of traditional houses in resolving contemporary architectural challenges, especially high energy consumption and environmental regulation.
Full-Text [PDF 1656 kb]   (134 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Highperformance Architecture
Received: 2024/02/10 | Accepted: 2024/05/9 | Published: 2024/08/1

1. Dormohamadi M, Tahbaz M, Velashjerdi Farahani A. Performance evaluation of a single-side windcatcher in the transitional seasons (case study: Khousf town, southern Khorasan Province, Iran). International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation. 2023 Feb 14. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBPA-01-2022-0002 [Article] [DOI]
2. Medlock III KB, Soligo R. Economic development and end-use energy demand. The Energy Journal. 2001 Apr;22(2):77-105. https://doi.org/10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol22-No2-4 [Article] [DOI]
3. Moshiri S, Atabi F, Hassan Panjehshahi M, Lechtenböehmer S. Long run energy demand in Iran: a scenario analysis. International Journal of Energy Sector Management. 2012 Apr 6;6(1):120-44. https://doi.org/10.1108/17506221211216571 [Article] [DOI]
4. Nasrollahi N, Hatami M, Khastar SR, Taleghani M. Numerical evaluation of thermal comfort in traditional courtyards to develop new microclimate design in a hot and dry climate. Sustainable cities and society. 2017 Nov 1;35:449-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2017.08.017 [Article] [DOI]
5. Roshan GR, Orosa JA, Nasrabadi T. Simulation of climate change impact on energy consumption in buildings, case study of Iran. Energy Policy. 2012 Oct 1;49:731-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.07.020 [Article] [DOI]
6. Brahmand Zadeh D, Rezaei Ghahroodi Z. Investigating the trend of changes in power consumption in different sectors during the period from 2001 to 2012. Srtc-amar. 2014;2:29-33. [Persian]. Available at: http://amar.srtc.ac.ir/article-1-124-fa.html [Article]
7. Dili AS, Naseer MA, Varghese TZ. Passive control methods for a comfortable indoor environment: Comparative investigation of traditional and modern architecture of Kerala in summer. Energy and Buildings. 2011 Feb 1;43(2-3):653-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.11.006 [Article] [DOI]
8. Priya RS, Sundarraja MC, Radhakrishnan S, Vijayalakshmi L. Solar passive techniques in the vernacular buildings of coastal regions in Nagapattinam, TamilNadu-India–a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Energy and Buildings. 2012 Jun 1;49:50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.09.033 [Article] [DOI]
9. Singh MK, Mahapatra S, Atreya SK. Bioclimatism and vernacular architecture of north-east India. Building and Environment. 2009 May 1;44(5):878-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.06.008 [Article] [DOI]
10. Motealleh P, Zolfaghari M, Parsaee M. Investigating climate responsive solutions in vernacular architecture of Bushehr city. HBRC journal. 2018 Aug 1;14(2):215-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2016.08.001 [Article] [DOI]
11. Kimura KI. Vernacular technologies applied to modern architecture. Renewable energy. 1994 Aug 1;5(5-8):900-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1481(94)90110-4 [Article] [DOI]
12. Hacene B, Chabane Sari NE, Amara S. Conception of a passive and durable house in Tlemcen (North Africa). Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 2011 May 1;3(3). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3588132
13. Mahdavinejad M, Bazazzadeh H, Mehrvarz F, Berardi U, Nasr T, Pourbagher S, Hoseinzadeh S. The impact of facade geometry on visual comfort and energy consumption in an office building in different climates. Energy Reports. 2024 Jun 1;11:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2023.11.021 [Article] [DOI]
14. Mahdavinejad M, Shaeri J, Nezami A, Goharian A. Comparing universal thermal climate index (UTCI) with selected thermal indices to evaluate outdoor thermal comfort in traditional courtyards with BWh climate. Urban Climate. 2024 Mar 1;54:101839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2024.101839 [Article] [DOI]
15. Dezfuli RR, Bazazzadeh H, Taban M, Mahdavinejad M. Optimizing stack ventilation in low and medium-rise residential buildings in hot and semi-humid climate. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. 2023 Oct 28:103555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2023.103555 [Article] [DOI]
16. Huang KT, Hwang RL. Future trends of residential building cooling energy and passive adaptation measures to counteract climate change: The case of Taiwan. Applied Energy. 2016 Dec 15;184:1230-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.008 [Article] [DOI]
17. Oropeza-Perez I, Østergaard PA. Energy saving potential of utilizing natural ventilation under warm conditions–A case study of Mexico. Applied energy. 2014 Oct 1;130:20-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.05.035 [Article] [DOI]
18. Taleb HM. Natural ventilation as energy efficient solution for achieving low-energy houses in Dubai. Energy and buildings. 2015 Jul 15;99:284-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.04.019 [Article] [DOI]
19. Taleb HM. Using passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in UAE buildings. Frontiers of architectural research. 2014 Jun 1;3(2):154-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2014.01.002 [Article] [DOI]
20. Masoumi HR, Nejati N, Ahadi AA. Learning from the heritage architecture: Developing natural ventilation in compact urban form in hot-humid climate: Case study of Bushehr, Iran. International Journal of Architectural Heritage. 2017 Apr 3;11(3):415-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2016.1238971 [Article] [DOI]
21. Gharaati F, Mahdavinejad M, Nadolny A, Bazazzadeh H. Sustainable Assessment of Built Heritage Adaptive Reuse Practice: Iranian Industrial Heritage in the Light of International Charters. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice. 2023 Oct 4:1-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/17567505.2023.2261328 [Article] [DOI]
22. Rajapaksha I, Nagai H, Okumiya M. A ventilated courtyard as a passive cooling strategy in the warm humid tropics. Renewable energy. 2003 Sep 1;28(11):1755-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(03)00012-0 [Article] [DOI]
23. Saligheh E, Saadatjoo P. Impact of central courtyard proportions on passive cooling potential in hot and humid regions (case study: single-story buildings in Bandar Abbas). Naqshejahan - Basic studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning. 2020 Sep 10;10(2):137-52. [Persian]. Available at: http://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-40649-en.html [Article]
24. Toe DH, Kubota T. Comparative assessment of vernacular passive cooling techniques for improving indoor thermal comfort of modern terraced houses in hot–humid climate of Malaysia. Solar energy. 2015 Apr 1;114:229-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2015.01.035 [Article]
25. Chandel SS, Sharma V, Marwah BM. Review of energy efficient features in vernacular architecture for improving indoor thermal comfort conditions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016 Nov 1;65:459-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.038 [Article] [DOI]
26. Chi DA. An approach to determine specific targets of daylighting metrics and solar gains for different climatic regions. Journal of Daylighting. 2021 Jan 5;8(1):1-9. https://dx.doi.org/10.15627/jd.2021.1 [Article] [DOI]
27. 27. Nourkojouri H, Shafavi NS, Tahsildoost M, Zomorodian ZS. Development of a machine-learning framework for overall daylight and visual comfort assessment in early design stages. Journal of Daylighting. 2021 Nov 29;8(2):270-83. https://dx.doi.org/10.15627/jd.2021.21
28. Nikghadam N. The effect of wind and sun on modulating the heating conditions of Bushehr houses Case Study: Golshan House. Iranian Journal of Architecture & Urbanism. 2016;12:29-46. [Persian]. https://doi.org/10.30475/isau.2017.62028 [Article] [DOI]
29. Lotfabadi P, Hançer P. A comparative study of traditional and contemporary building envelope construction techniques in terms of thermal comfort and energy efficiency in hot and humid climates. Sustainability. 2019 Jun 28;11(13):3582. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133582 [Article] [DOI]
30. Mansourimajoumerd P, Bazazzadeh H, Mahdavinejad M, Nia SN. Energy Efficiency and Building’s Envelope: An Integrated Approach to High-Performance Architecture. In Urban and Transit Planning: City Planning: Urbanization and Circular Development 2023 Apr 1 (pp. 25-33). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-20995-6_3 [Article] [DOI]
31. Fakhr BV, Mahdavinejad M, Rahbar M, Dabaj B. Design Optimization of the Skylight for Daylighting and Energy Performance Using NSGA-II. Journal of Daylighting. 2023 May 23;10(1):72-86. (doi: 10.15627/jd.2023.6) Available at: https://solarlits.com/jd/10-72 [Article]
32. Goharian A, Daneshjoo K, Mahdavinejad M, Yeganeh M. Voronoi geometry for building facade to manage direct sunbeams. Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering. 2022 Oct 26;31(2):109-24. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.30800 [Article] [DOI]
33. Goharian A, Daneshjoo K, Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M, Yeganeh M. A designerly approach to daylight efficiency of central light-well; combining manual with NSGA-II algorithm optimization. Energy. 2023 Apr 17:127402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2023.127402 [Article] [DOI]
34. Goharian A, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Daneshjoo K. Designerly optimization of devices (as reflectors) to improve daylight and scrutiny of the light-well’s configuration. Building Simulation. 2021 Oct 9 (pp. 1-24). Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-021-0839-y [Article] [DOI]
35. Goodarzi P, Ansari M, Mahdavinejad M, Russo A, Haghighatbin M, Rahimian FP. Morphological analysis of historical landscapes based on cultural DNA approach. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. 2023 Sep 1;30:e00277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.daach.2023.e00277 [Article] [DOI]
36. Goodarzi P, Ansari M, Rahimian FP, Mahdavinejad M, Park C. Incorporating sparse model machine learning in designing cultural heritage landscapes. Automation in Construction. 2023 Nov 1;155:105058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2023.105058 [Article] [DOI]
37. Nabil A, Mardaljevic J. Useful daylight illuminance: a new paradigm for assessing daylight in buildings. Lighting Research & Technology. 2005 Mar;37(1):41-57. https://doi.org/10.1191/1365782805li128oa [Article] [DOI]
38. Santos L, Leitão A, Caldas L. A comparison of two light-redirecting fenestration systems using a modified modeling technique for Radiance 3-phase method simulations. Solar energy. 2018 Feb 1;161:47-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.12.020 [Article] [DOI]
39. Fang J, Zhao Y, Tian Z, Lin P. Analysis of dynamic louver control with prism redirecting fenestrations for office daylighting optimization. Energy and Buildings. 2022 May 1;262:112019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.112019 [Article] [DOI]
40. Heidarzadeh S, Mahdavinejad M, Habib F. External shading and its effect on the energy efficiency of Tehran's office buildings. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 2023 May 17:e14185. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.14185 [Article] [DOI]
41. Nasrollahzadeh N. Comprehensive building envelope optimization: Improving energy, daylight, and thermal comfort performance of the dwelling unit. Journal of Building Engineering. 2021 Dec 1;44:103418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103418 [Article] [DOI]
42. Makki M, Showkatbakhsh M, Tabony A, Weinstock M. Evolutionary algorithms for generating urban morphology: Variations and multiple objectives. International Journal of Architectural Computing. 2019 Mar;17(1):5-35. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478077118777236 [Article] [DOI]
43. Deb K, Pratap A, Agarwal S, Meyarivan TA. A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. IEEE transactions on evolutionary computation. 2002 Apr;6(2):182-97. https://doi.org/10.1109/4235.996017 [Article] [DOI]
44. Ranjbar E, Pourjafar M, Khaliji K. Innovations in climatic designing due to the wind flowing through the old Bushehr. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-E Nazar. 2010 Mar 1;7(13):17-34. Available at: https://www.bagh-sj.com/article_23_en.html [Article]
45. Shaeri J, Habibi A, Yaghoubi M, Chokhachian A. The optimum window-to-wall ratio in office buildings for hot‒humid, hot‒dry, and cold climates in Iran. Environments. 2019 Apr 16;6(4):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6040045 [Article]
46. Mahdavinejad M, Bitaab N. From Smart-Eco Building to High-Performance Architecture: Optimization of Energy Consumption in Architecture of Developing Countries. E&ES. 2017 Aug;83(1): 012020. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/83/1/012020 [Article] [DOI]
47. Mahdavinejad M, Hosseini SA. Data mining and content analysis of the jury citations of the Pritzker Architecture prize (1977–2017). Journal of Architecture and Urbanism. 2019 Feb 1;43(1):71-90. https://doi.org/10.3846/jau.2019.5209 [Article] [DOI]
48. Deb K. Multi-objective optimization using evolutionary algorithms: an introduction. In Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for product design and manufacturing 2011 Sep 3 (pp. 3-34). London: Springer London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-85729-652-8_1 [Article] [DOI]
49. Mahdavinejad M, Javanroodi K. Natural ventilation performance of ancient wind catchers, an experimental and analytical study–case studies: one-sided, two-sided and four-sided wind catchers. International journal of energy technology and policy, 2014 Jan 1;10(1):36-60. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJETP.2014.065036 [Article] [DOI]
50. Mahdavinejad M, Zia A, Larki AN, Ghanavati S, Elmi N. Dilemma of green and pseudo green architecture based on LEED norms in case of developing countries. International journal of sustainable built environment, 2014 Dec 1;3(2):235-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2014.06.003 [Article] [DOI]
51. Mozafari N, Alimardani M. Climate Adaptability of Old and New House in Bushehr's Historical Texture. Civil and Environmental Engineering. 2020 Dec;16(2):249-58. https://doi.org/10.2478/cee-2020-0024 [Article] [DOI]
52. Bahrani H, Sepehri Ahrami A. Recognizing and determining the existence reason and functional role of senasir in the historical context of Bushehr. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-e Nazar. 2018 Mar 21;15(58):77-88. Available at: https://www.bagh-sj.com/article_59579_en.html [Article]
53. Shen H, Tzempelikos A. Sensitivity analysis on daylighting and energy performance of perimeter offices with automated shading. Building and environment. 2013 Jan 1;59:303-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.08.028 [Article] [DOI]
54. Rahbar M, Mahdavinejad M, Bemanian M, Davaie Markazi AH, Hovestadt L. Generating Synthetic Space Allocation Probability Layouts Based on Trained Conditional-GANs. Applied Artificial Intelligence. 2019 Jul 3;33(8):689-705. https://doi.org/10.1080/08839514.2019.1592919 [Article] [DOI]
55. Nikghadam N. Patterns of semi-open spaces in vernacular houses of Dezful, Bushehr and Bandar-e-Lenge considering climate atributes. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi. 2013 Sep 23;18(3):54-69. [Persian]. https://doi.org/10.22059/jfaup.2013.51319 [Article] [DOI]
56. Rahbar M, Mahdavinejad M, Markazi A.H.D., Bemanian M. Architectural layout design through deep learning and agent-based modeling: A hybrid approach. Journal of Building Engineering. 2022 April15; 47, 103822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103822 [Article] [DOI]
57. Aldossary NA, Rezgui Y, Kwan A. Domestic energy consumption patterns in a hot and humid climate: A multiple-case study analysis. Applied Energy. 2014 Feb 1;114:353-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.09.061 [Article] [DOI]
58. Rasoolzadeh M, Moshari M. Designerly approach to occupant health with the interaction of building material selection and healthy environment. Naqshejahan - Basic Studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning, 2023;13(3):129-148. Available at: http://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-73856-en.html [Article]
59. Scognamiglio A, Garde F, Røstvik HN. How net zero energy buildings and cities might look like? new challenges for passive design and renewables design. Energy Procedia. 2014 Jan 1;61:1163-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.1044 [Article] [DOI]
60. Saadatjoo P, Mahdavinejad M, Zhang G, Vali K. Influence of permeability ratio on wind-driven ventilation and cooling load of mid-rise buildings. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2021 Jul 1;70:102894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.102894 [Article] [DOI]
61. Tzikopoulos AF, Karatza MC, Paravantis JA. Modeling energy efficiency of bioclimatic buildings. Energy and buildings. 2005 May 1;37(5):529-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.09.002 [Article] [DOI]
62. Saadatjoo P, Mahdavinejad M, Zhang G. A study on terraced apartments and their natural ventilation performance in hot and humid regions. Building Simulation. 2018 Apr 1;11(2):359-372. Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-017-0407-7 [Article] [DOI]
63. Sarmadi H, Mahdavinejad M. A designerly approach to Algae-based large open office curtain wall Façades to integrated visual comfort and daylight efficiency. Solar Energy. 2023 Feb 1;251:350-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2023.01.021 [Article] [DOI]
64. Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M, Vakilinejad R, Bazazzadeh H, Monfared M. Effects of sea-breeze natural ventilation on thermal comfort in low-rise buildings with diverse atrium roof shapes in BWh regions. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. 2023 Jan 1;41:102638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2022.102638 [Article] [DOI]
65. Shaeri J, Mahdavinejad M. Prediction Indoor Thermal Comfort in Traditional Houses of Shiraz with PMV/PPD model. International Journal of Ambient Energy. 2022 Dec 31;43(1):8316-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2022.2092774 [Article] [DOI]
66. Shirzadnia Z, Goharian A, Mahdavinejad M. Designerly approach to skylight configuration based on daylight performance; Toward a novel optimization process. Energy and Buildings. 2023 Mar 11:112970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2023.112970 [Article] [DOI]
67. Talaei M, Mahdavinejad M, Azari R, Haghighi HM, Atashdast A. Thermal and energy performance of a user-responsive microalgae bioreactive façade for climate adaptability. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 2022 Aug 1;52:101894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2021.101894 [Article] [DOI]
68. Talaei M, Mahdavinejad M, Azari R, Prieto A, Sangin H. Multi-objective optimization of building-integrated microalgae photobioreactors for energy and daylighting performance. Journal of Building Engineering. 2021 Jun 5:102832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.102832 [Article] [DOI]
69. Valitabar M. Mohammadjavad M. Henry S. Peiman P. A dynamic vertical shading optimisation to improve view, visual comfort and operational energy. Open House International. 2021 Jul 9;46(3):401-415. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-02-2021-0031 [Article] [DOI]
70. Dezfuli RR, Mehrakizadeh M, Najar BS, Bazazzadeh H, Mahdavinejad M. Geometric investigation of entrance proportions of houses from the Qajar to the beginning of the early Pahlavi in Dezful City (1789–1979). Frontiers of Architectural Research. 2024 Feb 1;13(1):57-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2023.09.007 [Article] [DOI]
71. Zolfaghari Tehrani M, Mahdavinejad M, Ansari M, Mansouri B. The influential factors in Persian architecture as a biocompatible and eco-friendly building methodology. Naqshejahan-Basic Studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning, 2024 Aug 10;14(2):1-20. Available at: https://bsnt.modares.ac.ir/article-2-72457-en.html [Article]
72. Sorayaei T, Ranjbar E, Mahdavinejad M. A Systematic Review of Place-related Psychological Dimensions of Outdoor Thermal Comfort. Urban Design Discourse, a Review of Contemporary Literature and Theories. 2024 Feb 10;4(4):30-68. Available at: http://udd.modares.ac.ir/article-40-64865-en.html [Article]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.